Ahl al Kitab/ People of the Book:-  

       In Muhammadan tradition, the Jews and Christians are called
"People of the Book" [Ahl al Kitab] to distinguish them from all otherwise pagan religious groups. The 'Book' is invariably the Hebrew Bible.

       In the Quran this reference is invariably attributed to the Jews and the Torah. This expression appears in seventeen different Surahs about fifty five times.

       In most of the verses they speak of 'some' but NOT 'all' "The People of the Book" as guilty of one thing or another. Surahs 3,4, and 5 mention them most. Examples:  3:110/115; 4:156; 5:55/56; etc.

       At the very beginning of his evangelism, when Muhammad was a solitary and weak warner in Mecca among his antagonistic Quraysh tribe, his attitude towards the People of the Book was generally benign and conciliatory. It was during his Madina period ( for almost 10 years) that he reversed gear and turned against them for refusing to accept him as a messenger of Allah.    
2: 78        And there are among them illiterares [ummiyoun] who know not the Book [Torah] but (see therein their own) desires and they do nothing but conjecture. 79        Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands and then say: "This is from Allah" to traffic with it for a miserable price! Woe to them for what their hands do write and for the gain they make thereby.                                                                        

       *** The real translation of the Arabic 'ummiyoun'  is not ILLITERATES but UNLEARNED, that is, people who are ignorant of PREVIOUS REVELATIONS since invariably, this word is followed by
'who know not the Book' [Torah].

       The Jews, being the truest Monotheists and believers in the Bible, never, ever attempted to pervert or change it since that would have been sacriligeous.

        The fact that there exist tens of thousands of Bibles written in different languages, in different and ancient centuries and scattered in different countries on different continents and yet still bare the same contents, utterly disproves the fallacy of the Quran's accusations which are actually based on deliberate lies to demonise and denigrate the Jews and Christians***

2: 89        And when there comes to them a Book from Allah (Quran) confirming what is with them although from of old they had prayed for victory against those without faith when there comes to them that which they (should) have recognized they refused to believe in it; but the curse of Allah is on those without Faith.                                

       *** The term 'Book' as used in the Quran can and does describe all previous revelations such as the Torah, Gospels, Psalms etc even the Quran although it was never in book form in the life time of Muhammad.

       The reason for this is simple, the pagan Arabs had very little knowledge of writing, not much writing materials and not a single book in the Arabic language of any kind in the whole of the Arabian Peninsula especially in the area where Muhammad was born.

        Hence, including the Quran among the revealed Books is a travesty of veracity, reality and logic ***
2: 101        And when came to them an Apostle from Allah confirming what was with them a party of the people of the Book threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs as if (it had been something) they did not know!                

       # I think that by "the Book of God" here is meant, not the Qur-an, but the Book which the People of the Book had been given, viz., the previous Revelations. The argument is that Muhammad's Message was similar to Revelations which they had already received, and if they had looked into their own Books honestly and sincerely, they would have found proofs in them to show that the new Message was true and from God.  But they ignored their own Books or twisted or distorted them according to their own fancies.  Worse, they followed something which was actually false and mischeivous and inspired by the evil one.  Such was the belief in magic and sorcery.  These are described in the next verse in terms referring to the beliefs and practices of the "People of the Book."#                                                

       *** The interpreter's 'I think' is a red herring since he should have easily known from the same expression in 2:89, that it could only mean the Quran.

        Muhammad's 'revelations' were nothing more than the Plagiarising, Plundering, Pirating and /or Perverting of verses and stories from the religion of the Jews, Zoroastrian religion, Christianity, pagan Arabian religion, their respective traditions, fetishes and Scriptures.

       There is not a single Concept, Precept, Thought or Idea in the whole of the Quran which in any way shape or form is equal to or superior to the previously mentioned religions.

       In fact, based upon all the information available from the Quran, Ahadith, Arab & Islamic histories, as well as all other extant knowledge on the subjects at hand, there is not a single letter or word in the Quran let alone a verse/aya or chapter/sura that could possibly have emanated from any Omniscient, Merciful & Compassionate deity.

       The Quran is entirely Muhammad's personal ALTER EGO, projected into the unsuspecting mouth of Allah, the supreme rock god of the pagan Arabian Quraysh, embedded in the corner wall of the Ka'ba,called the Black Stone ***

2: 213 Mankind was one single nation and Allah sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed; but the People of the Book after the clear Signs came to them did not differ among themselves except through selfish contumacy.  Allah by His Grace guided the believers to the truth concerning that wherein they differed. For Allah guides whom He will to a path that is straight.                                                                                
       *** No matter how the Quran and its interpreters try to contort and twist reality to fit their agenda, they cannot but fail based on all the knowledge that is available to ALL regarding the subjects at hand.

       It is impossible that the God of the Jews and of the Christians is the same as Allah of Muhammad since the revelations given to the People of the Book totally CONTRADICT those given to Muhammad in his Quran.

       If Allah is God Almighty, He could not possibly have contradicted Himself nor could he have broken all the promises he had previously made to the People of the Book just because Muhammad alleges that He did.

       This particular allegation against God is pure and unadulterated blasphemy and paganism***

3: 19        The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His will): nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other after knowledge had come to them.  But if any deny the Signs of Allah Allah is swift in calling to account.                                                                                
       ***  Since there is not a single item in the Quran that is in any way shape or form either new or superior to what was revealed to the People of the Book, they would have had absolutely no reason whatsoever to be envious of Muhammad's alleged revelations.

        Muhammad after all, in his Quran repeatedly mentions that the Jews and his own tribesmen, the Quraysh, repeatedly questioned Muhammad's veracity about his revelations to the extent that he had no choice but to silence these witnesses to his deception, by MURDERING them***        

3: 48        "And Allah will teach him (Jesus) the Book and Wisdom the Law and the Gospel.        
       *** Allah would not have needed to show him (Jesus) the Book/Torah since he was a Jew, and in no way could Allah had shown Jesus the Gospels since they were only compiled decades after he was dead.

        This verse - as is repeatedly shown in the Quran - bears no reality or truth as to the actual events that transpired and as recorded historically or theologically.

       It is beyond belief and utter BLASPHEMY to attribute such Lies, Mendacities, Theological Falsehoods and Historical Dislocations to Allah if Allah the God of Israel and Jesus  ***

3:64        Say: "O People of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you: that we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with Him; that we erect not from among ourselves Lords and patrons other than Allah." If then they turn back say: "Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's will)." 

    65        Ye People of the Book! why dispute ye about Abraham when the Law and the Gospel were not revealed till after him?  Have ye no understanding?

       *** It is important to note that the Quran in this instance is differentiating between the Torah (Law) and the New Testament (Gospels) as being two different entities which of course they are.

        It is also important to mention that the Jews did not need Muhammad or his Quran to tell them to submit to the will of the One and Only God, nor to explain to them anything about THEIR Abraham, since they had been carrying the beacon of Monotheism for the preceding 2100 years while Muhammad and his Arabs were steeped in Paganism.

       It was PRECISELY because the Jews were such believers that Muhammad attempted to emulate them by giving similar scriptures to his pagan Arab brethren***

3: 75        Among the People of the Book are some who if entrusted with a hoard of gold will (readily) pay it back; others who if entrusted with a single silver coin will not repay it unless thou constantly stoodest demanding because they say "There is no call on us (to keep faith) with these ignorant (pagans)."  But they tell a lie against Allah and (well) they know it.        

       *** There are good and evil people among all races and nations including the Arabs. This is part and parcel of the human character ***

3: 113         Not all of them are alike: of the People of the book are a portion that stand (for the right); they rehearse the signs of Allah all night long and then prostrate themselves in adoration.        
       *** In this instance the Quran is being realistic in pointing out that not all the People of the Book - just like all other peoples, including the Muhammadans - are similar as to guilt, decency or religiosity***

3: 131        To Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth.  Verily We have directed the People of the Book before you and you (O Muslims) to fear Allah.  But if ye deny Him lo! unto Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth and Allah is free of all wants worthy of all praise.

3: 187 And remember Allah took a Covenant from the People of the Book to make it known and clear to mankind and not to hide it; but they threw it away behind their backs and purchased with it some miserable gain! and vile was the bargain they made!

       *** The Covenant was in the Torah (Circumcision) and NOT the
New Testament (where circumcision is not required), hence the address is directed towards the 'Jews' of Arabia.

       The Quran tells a clear lie in this verse since the Jews did not 'hide' their revelations from others especially since there were Arabian tribes who had converted to the religion of the Jews willingly and without coercion.

       Also, the fact that there was the Jewish kingdom of the Himyarites attests to the contradictions and lack of veracity in the Quranic version of events.

       Most important of all, the Israelites were instructed by the Almighty to be a ' light unto the nations' and not to FORCE, MURDER, SLAUGHTER, TERRORISE, SUBJUGATE and ENSLAVE humanity to believe in ALLAH as Muhammad and his hordes have been and are still doing.

        The Quran, after all, was supposed to be such a clear and unambiguous divine revelation that humans would follow it without hesitation or the need for the use of force.

       Unfortunately, the historical records of Muhammad and his followers show that humans were converted to Muhammad's version of 'Islam' only through fear, terror and subjugation***

3: 199         And there are certainly among the People of the Book those who believe in Allah in the revelation to you and in the revelation to them bowing in humility to Allah: they will not sell the signs of Allah for a miserable gain! for them is a reward with their Lord and Allah is swift in account.

       *** Yet again in this verse also, the People of the Book can only be the 'Jews' who believe in the One and Only God and not the Christians who believe in the Trinity.

        Even if  it covered both religions, this verse asserts, that such believers will go to Paradise just like the followers of Muhammad ***

4: 54        Or do they envy mankind [al Nass]  for what Allah hath given them of His bounty? But We had already given the people of Abraham the Book and Wisdom and conferred upon them [the Israelites] a great kingdom.        

       #Such as the kingdoms of David and Solomon, for they had international fame#        

       *** The translation of the verse is wrong, whether deliberately or not, is immaterial.

       It should read "…We had already given Abraham the Book and the wisdom and we conferred upon them (the Israelites) a great kingdom" (that of David and Solomon).

       The Quran is factually wrong - since it contradicts the original story in the Bible - as Abraham never received a written revelation in Book form.

       More over, the term mankind used here, al nass, in this instance, refers to the pagan Arabians and not to humanity in general***

4: 153        The People of the Book ask thee to cause a book to descend to them from heaven: indeed they asked Moses for an even greater (miracle) for they said: "Show us Allah in public" but they were dazed for their presumption with thunder and lightning.  Yet they worshipped the calf even after clear signs had come to them; even so We forgave them; and gave Moses manifest proofs of authority……

     157 That they said (in boast) "We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary the Apostle of Allah"; but they killed him not nor crucified him but so it was made to appear to them and those who differ therein are full of doubts with no (certain) knowledge but only conjecture to follow for of a surety they killed him not.

       *** As usual, the Quranic version of events is totally at variance with the historical and/or theological records.

        First of all, the Jews did not know about Jesus during his lifetime as there is no record of him anywhere in the history of the Jewish people. Jesus was made famous by the pagans of the Roman Empire long after he was dead.

        Secondly, the Jews did not kill the Christ Jesus - since they never considered him to be their Messiah - because it was the Romans who crucified him as a rebellious Jew.

       Once more the implication of the expression People of the Book is obviously about the 'Jews' - who allgedly had him crucified - and NOT the Christians.

       Most important of all - just in case it may have escaped the attention of the reader - the above verse completely DESTROYS and OBLITERATES Christianity.

Because without CRUCIFIXION, there is no DEATH;

without DEATH, there is no RESURRECTION;

without DEATH & RESURRECTION, there is no Christianity ***

4: 171        O People of the Book! commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allah aught but truth.  Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an Apostle of Allah and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His Apostles.  Say not "Trinity": desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One Allah: glory be to him: (for Exalted is He) above having a son.  To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth.  And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs.

       *** The Quran in this instance is confusing the issue by joining the Christians with the Jews under the same umbrella, People of the Book.

        Since the 'Jews' do not believe in the Trinity then it is obvious that the Christians should not have been included among the People of the Book, especially since the New Testament was supposed to have superseded the Torah and is an entity by itself ***

5: 5        This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you.  The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them.  (Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are believers but chaste women among the People of the Book revealed before your time when ye give them their due dowers and desire chastity not lewdness nor secret intrigues.  If anyone rejects faith fruitless is his work and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).
       *** Since the Christians are allowed to eat pork which is utterly prohibited both in the Torah and in the Quran, then once again, the Christians should not be included among the People of the Book since they have the New Testament.

        Moreover, although the Muhammadans can eat the food of the Jews, the latter cannot eat the food of the Muahammadans as it is not prepared according to Halacha (Jewish Dietry Laws).

       Yet again, the Quranic assertions are untrue and hence cannot be divinely 'revealed' ***

5: 15        O People of the Book! there hath come to you Our Apostle revealing to you much that ye used to hide in the Book [Torah] and passing over much (that is now unnecessary): There hath come to you from Allah a (new) Light and a perspicuous Book [Quran]        

       *** Muhammad and his Quran did NOT reveal a SINGLE new and practical precept, thought, concept or idea that had not been plagiarized, plundered, pirated and/or perverted from the Bible, Scriptures, Pagan Arabian religion, Zoroastrianism and their Traditions.

        Muhammad was and is neither a new light nor a better one. On the contrary, Muhammad and his Quran are the nemesis of the People of the Book and the Bible ***

5: 44        It was We who revealed the law (to Moses); therein was guidance and light.  By its standard have been judged the Jews by the Prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah's will by the Rabbis and the doctors of Law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's Book and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men but fear Me and sell not My Signs for a miserable price.  If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed they are (no better than) unbelievers.        

       *** Whether deliberately or not, the translation of this verse is also wrong.

       It should read " It was We who had descended (revealed) the Torah [Taurat] therein Guidance and Light by the standards of which the Prophets, who had submitted (to Islam),  judge those who have become Jews and the rabbis and the doctors of Law ...

       This is one of the very few fair and realistic verses in the Quran concerning the Jews where in the Hebrew Prophets are declared 'Muslims' which of course  was the case in the sense that the believed in the One and only God***

5: 65        If only the People of the Book had believed and been righteous We should indeed have blotted out their iniquities and admitted them to gardens of Bliss…… 68        Say:
"O People of the Book! ye have no ground to stand upon unless ye stand fast by the Law the Gospel and all the revelation that has come to you from your Lord."  It is the revelation that cometh to thee from thy Lord that increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy.  But sorrow thou not over (these) people without Faith. 69        Those who believe (in the Qur'an) those who follow the Jewish (Scriptures) and the Sabians and the Christians any who believe in Allah and the Last Day and work righteousness on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.

       *** In this instance, the 'Jews', Christians and even the pagan Sabeans are being included among the 'Muslims' and hence, just like the followers of Muhammad are able to go to Paradise.

       Unfortunately, this aya was 'revealed' when Muhammad was  in a CONCILIATORY mood in Mecca which was henceforth abrogated by other warmongering and hatemongering verses from the Madina period***

5: 59        Say: "O People of the Book! do ye disapprove of us for no other reason than that we believe in Allah and the revelation that hath come to us and that which came before (us) and (perhaps) that most of you are rebellious and disobedient?"        

         *** Since the Jews are Monotheists and believe in the One and Only God, and since the Arab historical record itself shows that there was no enmity between them and Muhammad until he started to impose his own version of Islam upon them, then all the diatribes in the Quran against the Jews are utterly false and self serving.

       These attacks against the Jews are used to justify Muhammad's murderous acts against them .

        It is the eternal historical case whereby the criminal excuses  his actions by demonising and blaming its victims; the case of Projective Identification***   

5: 110        Then will Allah say: "O Jesus the son of Mary! recount my favor to thee and to thy mother.  Behold! I strengthened thee with the holy spirit so that thou didst speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught thee the Book and Wisdom the Law and the Gospel. And behold! thou makest out of clay as it were the figure of a bird by My leave and thou breathest into it and it becometh a bird by My leave and thou healest those born blind and the lepers by My leave. And behold! thou bringest forth the dead by My leave.  And behold! I did restrain the Children of Israel from (violence to) thee when thou didst show them the Clear Signs and the unbelievers among them said: `This is nothing but evident magic'.                                                
       *** Yet again the Quran contradicts another previous revelation in the New Testament and uses an apocryphal story not in the New Testament.

       It beggars belief to accept that the same angel Gabriel who had predicted  - according to the Gospels - the arrival of Jesus as the REDEEMER of humanity, would give a completely different version of the same events to Muhammad as being  true.

       Why and how is it possible that the paramount angel of God would contradict himself? After all, he would be acting at the instructions of the Almighty.

        Is it possible that the Almighty would deceive people by changing His mind without warning or justification?

       To attribute lies and decptions to the Almighty is blasphemy since these are human attributes. Unfortunately, the Quran is full of verses giving Allah exactly these attribues because in reality, Allah is NOT God, and definitely NOT the God of Israel & Jesus***

6: 20        Those to whom We have given the Book [Torah] know this as they know their own sons.  Those who have lost their own souls refuse therefore to believe.rebellious and disobedient?"        
       *** This verse asserts that the Jews knew full well, based on the Bible, that Muhammad was a messenger of Allah.

       Of course there is absolutely no truth to this statements since Muhammad's name - as well as those of Allah, Mecca, Ka'ba & Madina - is not mentioned in the Bible nor was he among the descendants of Isaac to be one.

       True to norm, again and again, Muhammad and his Quran pervert history and religion to fit Muhammad's agenda***

6: 114        Say: "Shall I seek for judge other than Allah? when He it is Who hath sent unto you the Book (Quran) explained in detail."  They know full well to whom We have given the Book (Torah)  that it hath been sent down from thy Lord in truth.  Never be then of those who doubt.        
           *** Once more, Muhammad and his Quran put words and thoughts into the mouths and minds of the Jews asserting that although they knew Muhammad was the messenger from Allah, they still denied this 'fact' purely out of jealousy because he was not a Jew but an Arab.

       There is no choice but to point out once again that there is absolutely nothing in the Quran - no precept, concept, thought or idea - that in any manner,  way, shape or form, is equal to or superior to any or all that the Quran itself had Plagiarised, Plundred, Pirated and/or Perverted from the beliefs and traditions of the Jews, Christians, Zoroasteriand and pagan Arabs ***
9: 29        Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His apostle nor acknowledge the religion of truth (even if they are) of the People of the Book until they pay the Jizya (tax) with willing submission and feel themselves subdued.                                

       *** This verse is one of the most vile, most aggressive, most evil and Satanic, most immoral and disgusting in the whole of the Quran.

       This verse alone abrogated over one hundred conciliatory ones which were 'revealed' to Muhammad when he was in Mecca. It is a declaration of perpetual and unremitting war against every human being who does not believe in Allah AND his messenger Muhammad.

       It is based upon such a verse that the modern followers of Muhammad are creating havoc and terror all over the world in their attempt at world domination and/ or subjugation.

       No amount of contrived arguments by the Muhammadans regarding the warmongering and hatemongering meaning of this verse - and hundreds like minded more - should be allowed to take root.

       This declaration of war was UNILATERALLY initiated by Muhammad 1400 years ago. Its precepts were emulated by his followers who conquered, murdered, subjugated and enslaved hundreds of millions of innocent and unwary human beings.

       This process is continuing today in every corner of the earth where there are 'religious' conflicts initiated by them.

       As far as the Peolple of the Book are concerned, Muhammad and his Quran would spare them massacre and annihilation if they pay the onerous Jizya tax, in their own conquered countries to spare their life and to give them protection; from whom? ***

10: 37 This Qur'an is not such as can be produced by other than Allah; on the contrary it is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it and a fuller explanation of the Book wherein there is no doubt from the Lord of the Worlds.        

       # The Book: Cf. iii. 23 and n. 366. Allah's revelation throughout the ages is one. The Qur-an confirms, fulfils, completes, and further explains the one true revelation, which has been sent by the One True God in all ages#

       *** In which way shape or form does the Quran add anything to the Bible?

        Where, how and in which manner or verse can any human being, let alone a Muhammadan show this?

       It can be proven that:

       Many verses of the Quran were plagiarised - verbatim in some cases - from pagan Arabian poetry;

       That the Quran has an enormous numbers of grammatical errors;

       That it is almost totally incoherent and without detailed explanations;

       That it rambles on without logic or continuity from one unconnected  subject to another;

       From one era of history to a completely different one in a different century;

       That the Biblical names and events mentioned therein are completely at variance and at odds with the originals in the Bible and the historical record.

       In summation, it is improbable and impossible that the Quran could have emanated from an ALL KNOWING, ALL WISE deity of any kind let alone the
One and Only God of Israel***

10: 94 If thou wert in doubt as to what We have revealed unto thee then ask those who have been reading the Book [Torah] from before thee: the Truth hath indeed come to thee from thy Lord: so be in nowise of those in doubt.        

       *** To assert the veracity of his 'revelations', Allah in this case, tells his followers to ask the Jews about their earlier revelations as corroboration of his.

        Even this verse was later abrogated by ones prohibiting his followers from discussing the matter with the Jews :

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 3.850        Narrated byUbaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utba
Ibn Abbas said, "O Muslims? How do you ask the people of the Scriptures, though your Book (i.e. the Qur'an) which was revealed to His Prophet is the most recent information from Allah and you recite it, the Book that has not been distorted? Allah has revealed to you that the people of the Scriptures have changed with their own hands what was revealed to them and they have said (as regards their changed Scriptures): This is from Allah, in order to get some worldly benefit thereby." Ibn Abbas added: "Isn't the knowledge revealed to you sufficient to prevent you from asking them? By Allah I have never seen any one of them asking (Muslims) about what has been revealed to you."

       The Jews would obviously not have asked the 'Muslims' about what was 'revealed' to them because they already knew that these were False, Man-made,  and Untrue 'revelations' that Muhammad concocted and pretended they were 'descended' from Allah through the agency of the angel Gabriel***

18: 27  And recite (and teach) what has been revealed to thee of the Book [Quran] of thy Lord: none can change His Words and none wilt thou find as a refuge other than Him.        

           *** Since NONE can change Allah's words, then how can the scholars among the followers of Muhammad contend that the People of the Book did just that to their Books, that were also revealed by Allah?***        

19: 12        (To his son came the command): "O Yahya! take hold of the Book [Torah] with might": and We gave him wisdom even as a youth……16        Relate in the Book (the story of) Mary when she withdrew from her family to a place in the East.        

           *** This Quranic version of the story of Yahya [John the Baptist] is not mentioned in the Gospels. He was not given any Book and was only the harbinger to the arrival of his cousin Jesus.

       As usual, Muhammad put this story in the Quran just as he had heard it from some Christians describing stories from none canonical books ***        
29:46 "And dispute ye not with the People of the Book except with means better (than mere disputation) unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury): but say "We believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our God [Ilahuna] and your God [Ilahukum] is one; and it is to Him we bow (in Islam) [wa nahnou lahou Muslimoon] ."

       *** Once more, the People of the Book are considered Muslims which of course they are since they were the first, after all, who believed in the
One and Only God***

33: 26 And those of the People of the Book who aided them Allah did take them down from their strongholds and cast terror into their hearts (so that) some ye slew and some ye made prisoners.        
       *** The only People of the Book in the Madina were the 'Jewish' tribes and not the Christians ***

35: 25 And if they reject thee so did their predecessors to whom came their apostles with Clear Signs Books of Dark Prophecies [Zubur/ Psalms] and the
Book of Enlightenment [Torah].        

       #      The three things here mentioned are also mentioned in iii. 184, where I have explained the meaning: (1) Clear Signs (baiyinat); (2) zubur, and (3) kitab-il-Munir. The signification of (1) I have explained in the note to iii. 62, as far as they relate to Jesus. In a more general sense, it means the clear evidence which Allah's dealings furnish about a Messenger of Allah having a true mission: e.g., Moses in relation to Pharaoh. (2) The word Zubur has been translated as scriptures. It comes from the root Zabara which implies something hard. The commentators are not agreed, but the prophetic writings which seemed to contemporaries difficult to understand may well be meant here. David's psalms (Zabur, iv. 163) may also come under this description. As to (3), there is no doubt about the literal meaning of the words, "the Book of Enlightenment". But what does it precisely refer to? I take it to mean the fundamental guide to conduct,-the clear rules laid down in all Dispensations to help men to lead good lives. "All spiritual teaching centres round the evidences of Allah in our lives, the sublime teaching of Prophets of Allah, and the rules and laws which guide holy living.         

       ***  The translation of the verse is not correct. The interpreter finds it difficult to admit that the Book of Enlightment can only be the Torah since there is no other Book that the Quran can refer to before itself ***
42:15 Now then for that (reason) call (them to the Faith) and stand steadfast as thou art commanded nor follow thou their vain desires; but say: "I believe in the Book which Allah has sent down; and I am commanded to judge justly between you. Allah is Our Lord and your Lord. For us (is the responsibility for) Our deeds and for you for your deeds.  There is no contention between us and you.  Allah will bring us together and to Him is (Our) final goal.

       *** Again, the Quran does not discriminate between the 'Jews' and the followers of Muhammad in their Islam. According to this verse, there is no dispute or difference between the two 'sects' ***

45: 16 We did aforetime grant to the Children of Israel the Book the Power of Command and Prophethood; We gave them for Sustenance things good and pure; and We favored them above the nations.                           

       *** Even the Quran admits that the Israelites were chosen (by Allah) above all other nations.

       The Quran is not accusing them of claiming that they are 'chosen', in the sense that they are racially superior to other human beings as the followers of Muhammad assert, contrary to their own holy book ***

57: 25 We sent aforetime our apostles with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong) [Torah] that men may stand forth in justice; and We sent down Iron in which is (material for) mighty war as well as many benefits for mankind that Allah may test who it is that will help unseen Him and His apostles; for Allah is Full of Strength exalted in Might (and able to enforce His will)        

       *** It is important to note that although the verse speaks of 'apostles' in the plural sense, none the less it speaks of only ONE previous Book of revelation.

        Only the Torah was such a book available to the previous prophets, all of whom were Israelites.

       Why would the verse mention iron as being 'sent down' as if it were like Muhammad's 'revelations'?

       Iron exists in the crust of the earth and is only 'sent down' in the form of meteorites and meteors. The combination of the two subject matters have neither relevance, logic or connectivity, nor rythem or rhyme like most of the other verses of the Quran***

98: 1        Those who reject (Truth) among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists were not going to depart (from their ways) until there should come to them Clear Evidence….6        Those who reject (Truth) among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists will be in hell-fire to dwell therein (for aye).  They are the worst of creatures

       *** Neither the Jews nor the Christians accepted his alleged prophethood, neither did his own tribe for that matter.

       Muhammad's rhetoric and his Quranic verses reflect an ascending curve of hatred,calls for uncompromising hostility, justification of violence and humiliation of those who refused to acknowledge him as a prophet.

        Muhammad achieved his purposes by alleging the reception of 'divine decrees' justifying all his nefarious deeds and actions***

Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 228        Narrated byAbuHurayrah
When it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him): "To Allah belongs whatever is in the Heavens and whatever is Earth and whether you disclose that which is in your mind or conceal it, Allah will call you to account according to it. Then He forgives whom He pleases and chastises whom He please; and Allah has power over everything" (ii.284).

        the Companion of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) felt it to be hard and severe. They came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and kneeling down, said: Messenger of Allah, we were assigned some duties which were within our power to perform, such as prayer, fasting, struggling (in the cause of Allah), charity. Then this (the above-mentioned) verse was revealed unto you and it is beyond our power to live up to it. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Do you intend to say what the people of two books (Jews and Christians) said before you: "We hear and disobey"? You should rather say: "We hear and we obey, (we seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord! And unto Thee is the return."  And they said: "We hear and we obey, (we seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord! and unto Thee is the return."  When the people recited it and it flowed smoothly from their tongues,
then Allah revealed immediately afterwards:
"The apostle believes in that which is sent down unto him from his Lord, and so do the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His angels, His Books and His apostles, saying: We differentiate not between any of His apostles; and they say: We hearken and we obey; (we seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord! And unto Thee is the return" (ii.285).
When they did that, Allah abrogated this (verse) and the Great, Majestic Allah revealed: "Allah burdens not a soul beyond its capacity. It receives every good that it earns and it suffers every ill that it earns. Our Lord, punish us not if we forget or make a mistake."  (The Prophet said): Yes, our Lord! do not lay on us a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us. (The Prophet said:) Yes, our Lord, impose not on us (burdens) which we have not the strength to bear. (The Prophet said:) Yes, and pardon us and grant us protection! And have mercy on us. Thou art our Patron, so grant us victory over the disbelieving people" (ii.286).  He (the Lord) said: Yes.

       *** Muhammad differentiated between the Jews and the Christians since each had their own holy book: the Torah and the New Testament.

       The expression 'the People of the Book' is invariably attributed to the Jews***

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.460        Narrated byAbu Huraira
The people of the Book used to read the Torah in Hebrew and then explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. Allah's Apostle said (to the Muslims). "
Do not believe the people of the Book, nor disbelieve them, but say, 'We believe in Allah and whatever is revealed to us, and whatever is revealed to you.' "

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.643        Narrated byAbu Huraira
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "Before Allah created the creations, He wrote a Book (wherein He has written): 'My Mercy has preceded my Anger,' and that (Book) is written with Him over the Throne."

Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 2145        Narrated byAn-Nu'man ibn Bashir
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "Two thousand years before creating the heavens and the Earth, Allah inscribed a book of which He sent down two verses with which He concluded surat al-Baqarah. The Devil will not come near a house in which they are recited three nights."
Tirmidhi and Darimi transmitted it, Tirmidhi saying this is a gharib tradition.

       *** How many different Books did Allah write BEFORE the Creation?

        How did Muhammad know this ?

       The Quran does not refer to anything like these allegations. Muhammad seems to know more than God's revelations in His Torah***

Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 3598        Narrated byAbuMusa al-Ash'ari
Ash-Sha'bi said: A Muslim was about to die at Daquqa', but he did not find any Muslim to call him for witness to his will. So he called two men of the people of the Book for witness. Then they came to Kufah, and approaching AbuMusa al-Ash'ari they informed him (about his) will. They brought his inheritance and will. Al-Ash'ari said: This is an incident (like) which happened in the time of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) and never occurred after him. So he made them to swear by Allah after the afternoon prayer to the effect that they had not misappropriated, nor  told a lie, nor changed, nor concealed, nor altered, and that it was the will of the man and his inheritance. He then executed their witness.                        

           ***  This must have been a very unusual event not easily repeated during 1400 years of Muhammadan rule since it allowed Jews to be witnesses to a will from a Muhammadan and accepted their oath by Allah as true.

        This story, if true, shows that under conditions of tolerance and equity, which is a very rare occurrence under the yoke of Fundamentalist Muhammadan Islam, the Jews are considered equal to any 'Muslim' ***