Black Stone/ Hajar al Aswad:-                        


       This is the name given to the meteorite embedded in the wall of the Ka'ba that was venerated by the Pagan Arabs and has become the prime centre of veneration of Muhammadan Islam by subsuming all the traditions and fetishes of the  Pagan Arabs into the new wrapping of 'Islam'.

       The Black Stone (Hajar al Aswad) is NEVER mentioned in the Quran


       According to the 'Muslims', it is in the 'tradition' of the Arabs that this stone was given to Abraham and Ishmael by the angel Gabriel to be the corner stone of the Ka'ba. Of course this could not have been the case since CORNER  STONES are not the FIRST but the LAST to be put into a building. Moreover, it was originally white in colour , but became black because it was touched by menstruating women over the centuries.

        One should ask the question as to why would Abraham, the first monotheist and friend of God, allow the veneration of a stone?

       It was he after all  who, according to the tradition of the Jews and 'Isalm',  destroyed all the figures of gods and goddesses that were venerated by his tribe, would  now accept another symbol of paganism, a mere unsculpted stone, after all?

       The Black Stone is a comparatively small meteorite, being roughly 30 cm (12 in.) in diameter. However, it can be recognized instantly by the large silver band surrounding it.

       When pilgrims circle the Ka'ba as part of the ritual of the Hajj, many of them try, if possible, to stop and kiss the Black Stone.

       The Stone is actually broken into several pieces, damage which occurred when it was stolen in 930. Qarmatian warriors sacked Mecca and carried the Black Stone away to their base in Bahrain. It was returned twenty-two years later. In the process, the Black Stone was cracked. It is now held together by the silver band, which is fastened by silver nails to the Stone.

       Some 'Muslims' are more willing to believe that the Stone itself has some supernatural powers. They believe that this stone fell from the sky during the time of Adam and Eve, and that it has the power to cleanse worshippers of their sins by absorbing them into itself. They say that the Black Stone was once a pure and dazzling white and it has turned black because of the sins it has absorbed over the years.

       It is remarkable, however, that even though the temple contained 360 idols worshipped before Muhammad, the Black Stone was never kissed or made an idol of worship. In fact, the Ka'ba was never worshipped by the idolaters prior to Muhammad. The building contained idols of worship but the building itself was never an object of worship.

       The single most important reason for kissing the Stone is because Muhammad did so. No devotional significance whatsoever is attached to the stone. Kissing or touching the Black Stone is a reverential act of acknowledgment that Allah's hand directed its placement and construction. That Abraham and Muhammad, Allah's blessing upon them, had touched and kissed the stone and an acknowledgment that Allah had entrusted the 'corner stone' of his religious central focus for man upon that hollowed and sacred place.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah   Fiqh 5.74b
Sunnah of Tawaf
It is Sunnah to perform certain acts in tawaf as given below:
1.        Facing the Black Stone at the start of the tawaf while uttering a takbir (Allahu-Akbar), and a tahlil (La ilaha illahlah), and raising one's hands as they are raised in prayers, and if possible touching it with both hands and kissing it quietly, or placing one's cheek on it. Otherwise, one may touch it with one's hand and kiss the hand, or touch it with something, and then kiss it, or if even that is not possible, one may just point to it with a stick, etc. as is mentioned in some of the ahadith given below.

Ibn 'Umar said: "Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) faced the Black Stone touched it, and then placed his lips on it and wept for a long time." 'Umar also wept for a long time. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'O 'Umar, this is the place where one should shed tears.''' (Reported by Al-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith with a sound chain of authorities)

       It is reported by Ibn 'Abbas that 'Umar bent down towards the Black Stone and said: "By Allah! I know that you are a mere stone, and if I had not seen my beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you and touching you I would have never done so."

       *** This is an extremely interesting statement from one who used to be a pagan. His conversion to Monotheism was so complete that he was able to make the above statement while his Prophet (Muhammad) was actually VENERATING an IDOL ***

The Quran 33.32 says: "You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."' This was reported by Ahmad and others in slightly different words.

Nafi' said, "I have seen Ibn 'Umar touching the Black Stone with his hand, and then kissing his hand and saying: 'Ever since I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing this, I have never failed to do that.''' (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

Sowayd bin Ghaflah said: "I have seen 'Umar kissing the Black Stone and touching it." He further said: "I know that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was especially very particular about it.''

(Muslim) Ibn 'Umar reported that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) used to come to Ka'bah, touch the Black Stone and then say:
Bismillahi wallahu akbar (In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest.)"

(Ahmad) Muslim has reported on the authority of Abu Tufail that he said: "I have seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) making tawaf around the Ka'bah and touching it with a stick and then kissing the stick."

       Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Daw'ud reported that 'Umar approached the Black Stone and kissed it.

Then he said: "I know that you are a mere stone that can neither harm nor do any good. If I had not seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you, I would have never kissed you."

Al-Khatabi said: "This shows that abiding by the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is binding, regardless of whether or not we understand its reason or the wisdom behind it."

       Such information devolves obligation on all those whom it reaches, even if they may not fully comprehend its significance. It is known, however, that kissing the Black Stone signifies respect for it, recognition of our obligation toward it, and using it as a means of seeking Allah's blessings. Indeed Allah has preferred some stones over others, as He preferred some countries and cities, days and nights, and months over others. The underlying spirit of all this is unquestioning submission to Allah.

       In some ahadith which say that "the Black Stone is Allah's right hand on earth," we do find, however, a plausible rationale and justification for this statement. In other words whosoever touches the Black Stone he pledges allegiance to Allah, as it were, by giving his hand into the hand of Allah, just as some followers do pledge their fealty to their kings and masters, by kissing and shaking hands with them.

Al-Muhallib said: "The hadith of 'Umar refutes the assertions of those who say that 'The Black Stone is Allah's right hand on earth wherewith He shakes the hands of His slaves."' God forbid that we should ascribe any physical organs to Allah. The commandment to kiss the Black Stone is meant to test and to demonstrate palpably as to who obeys and submits. It may be compared with the command to Iblis to bow to Adam.

       We have no definite evidence, however, to believe that any of the stones used in building the Ka'bah originally (by Ibrahim and Isma'il), is still in existence today excepting the Black Stone.

Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 1813        Narrated byAbdullah ibn Abbas
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: A person who performs umrah should shout talbiyah till he touches the Black Stone.

Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 1884        Narrated byAbdullah ibn Abbas
The Prophet (peace be upon him) wore the mantle under his right armpit with the end over his left shoulder, and touched the corner (Black Stone), then uttered "Allah is most great" and walked proudly in three circuits of circumambulation. When they (the Companions) reached the Yamani corner, and disappeared from the eyes of the Quraysh, they walked as usual; When they appeared before them, they walked proudly with rapid strides. Thereupon the Quraysh said: They look to be the deer (that are jumping). Ibn Abbas said: Hence this became the sunnah (model behaviour of the Prophet).

       *** The reader should be made aware that Muhammad and his 'Muslim' followers were circumambulating the Ka'ba while it was still a PAGAN SHRINE ***

Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 1894        Narrated byAbdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As
Shu'ayb ibn Abdullah said: I went round the Ka'bah along with Abdullah ibn Amr. When we came behind the Ka'bah I asked: Do you not seek refuge? He uttered the words: I seek refuge in Allah from the Hell-fire. He then went (farther) and touched the Black Stone, and stood between the corner (Black Stone) and the entrance of the Ka'bah. He then placed his breast, his face, his hands and his palms in this manner, and he spread them, and said: I saw the apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) doing like this.

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.667        Narrated byAbis bin Rabia
'Umar came near the Black Stone and kissed it and said "No doubt, I know that you are a stone and can neither benefit anyone nor harm anyone. Had I not seen Allah's Apostle kissing you I would not have kissed you."

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.675        Narrated byZaid bin Aslam from his father who said
"Umar bin Al-Khattab addressed the Corner (Black Stone) saying, 'By Allah! I know that you are a stone and can neither benefit nor harm. Had I not seen the Prophet touching (and kissing) you, I would never have touched (and kissed) you.' Then he kissed it and said, 'There is no reason for us to do Ramal (in Tawaf) except that we wanted to show off before the pagans, and now Allah has destroyed them.' 'Umar added, '(Nevertheless), the Prophet did that and we do not want to leave it (i.e. Ramal).'

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.673        Narrated bySalim that his father said
I saw Allah's Apostle arriving at Mecca; he kissed the Black Stone Corner first while doing Tawaf and did ramal in the first three rounds of the seven rounds (of Tawaf).

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.676        Narrated byNafi
Ibn 'Umar. said, "I have never missed the touching of these two stones of Ka'ba (the Black Stone and the Yemenite Corner) both in the presence and the absence of crowds, since I saw the Prophet touching them." I asked Nafi': "Did Ibn 'Umar use to walk between the two Corners?" Nafi' replied, "He used to walk in order that it might be easy for him to touch it (the Corner Stone)."

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.683        Narrated byUrwa
'Aisha said, "The first thing the Prophet did on reaching Mecca, was the ablution and then he performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba and that was not 'Umra (alone), (but Hajj-al-Qiran). 'Urwa added: Later Abu Bakr and 'Umar did the same in their Hajj." And I performed the Hajj with my father Az-Zubair, and the first thing he did was Tawaf of the Ka'ba. Later I saw the Muhajirin (Emigrants) and the Ansar doing the same. My mother (Asma') told me that she, her sister ('Aisha), Az-Zubair and such and such persons assumed Ihram for 'Umra, and after they passed their hands over the Black Stone Corner (of the Ka'ba) they finished the Ihram (i.e. after doing Tawaf of the Ka'ba and Sa'i between Safa-Marwa). 

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.697        Narrated byIbn Abbas
Allah's Apostle performed Tawaf (of the Kaba) riding a camel (at that time the Prophet had foot injury). Whenever he came to the Corner (having the Black Stone) he would point out towards it with a thing in his hand and say, "Allahu-Akbar."

Al-Muwatta Hadith  Hadith 20.108
Hastening (Raml) in the Tawaf
Yahya related to me from Malik from Jafar ibn Muhammad from his father that Jabir ibn Abdullah said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hastening from the Black Stone until he reached it again, three times."
Malik said, "This is what is still done by the people of knowledge in our city."

Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 2577        Narrated byAbdullah ibn Abbas
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "The black stone descended from Paradise whiter than milk, but the sins of the descendants of Adam made it black."
Ahmad and Tirmidhi transmitted it, the latter saying that his is a hasan sahih tradition.


       *** The reader should be made aware of the following:

1.        No where in the Bible is the name of Allah mentioned.

2.        No where in the Torah or the New Testament is there mention of Arabia, Mecca or the Ka'ba.

3.        No where in the Bible is there mention that Abraham or Ishmael ever set foot in Arabia especially in the area of Mecca, almost 1000 miles away from Canaan.

4.        No where in the Bible is there mention that Hagar and Ishmael ever went to Mecca.

       Genesis 21: 20 " And God was with the lad; and he grew, and lived in the wilderness, and became an archer
                                  21 " And he lived in the wilderness of Paran; and his mother took for him a wife from the land of Egypt "

5.         In fact, the Bible tells us that Ishmael and his children sojourned between

       Genesis 25: 18 " And they lived from Havilah to Shur that is before Egypt, as you go towards Assyria....

6.        Before Muhammad, no pagan Arab was called Abraham/Ibrahim or Ishmael/Ismail. This is based on the study of the names of ALL the men mentioned in the Ahadith who belonged to the Arab tribes.

       If Abraham and Ishmael were TRULY the ANCESTORS of the Arabs, it stands to reason that at least SOME Arabs would have carried their name. NONE did. Muhammad's name on the other hand, appears among almost 20% of his followers.

7.        Even the Arabs who had converted to the religion of the Jews [ Al Llatheena Hadoo], did not carry the names of either Abraham or Ishmael.

8.        One can understand that it was possible for the Arabs to have lost their 'original' Monotheism and turned to Paganism; but it would be beyond logic or comprehension to assume that they ALSO forgot the names of their most illustrios 'fathers'.

9.        No where in all the ORAL traditions of Arabia, the poems of the Jahiliyah (before Muhammad), is there mention of Abraham or Ishmael, of Hagar (she is not mentioned in the Quran) , of Maqam Ibrahim in the Ka'ba, or anything about the Black Stone.

10.        The Quran REPEATEDLY asserts that the Pagan Arabs had no KNOWLEDGE of PREVIOUS REVELATIONS. If so, how pray could they have known about the Hebrew Patriarch that they claim relationship to?


4:113         But for the Grace of Allah to thee and His Mercy a party of them would certainly have plotted to lead thee astray.  But (in fact) they will only lead their own souls astray and to thee they can do no harm in the least.  For Allah hath sent down to thee the Book and wisdom and taught thee what thou knewest not (before) [ma lam takoonoo ta'alamu] ; and great is the grace of Allah unto thee.

42:52         And thus have We by Our command sent inspiration to thee: thou knowest not (before) what was Revelation and what was Faith; but We have made the (Qur'an) a Light wherewith We guide such of Our servants as We will; and verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way

62:2 It is He Who has sent amongst the Unlettered (Ummyeen) an apostle from among themselves to rehearse to them His Signs to sanctify them and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom although they had been before in manifest error
       
       In the Qarawiyun Manuscript in Fez (MS fos.8a-9b) Umar ibn al Khattab was being regaled by stories about the potency of invocation and the narrator told him that in the Jahiliyah, the pagan Arabs knew nothing of a One and only God, the sending of prophets, resurrection, paradise or hell.

       Also in (MS fos. 22b-23b) where it states the following " The Arabs were illiterate. They did not study writing. All they knew of heaven and hell, the resurrection, the mission of prophets and so on was the little they heard from the Jews and Christians. This teaching had no effect on their lives"

       Before Muhammad, the Pagan Arabs did not know that they were related to Abraham and Ishmael.

11.        All the so called 'traditions' of 'Islam' regarding the origins of the Black Stone, the Ka'ba, Abraham, Hagar, Ishmael, Adam & Eve (she is not mentioned in the Quran) were CONCOCTED and put together over a period of almost 300 years from the death of Muhammad.

12.        No where does the Quran even intimate that the Arabs are descended from Abraham and Ishmael but only that they were the first 'Muslims' and the alleged builders of the foundation of the Ka'ba.

13.        Muhammad had to create for himself and his followers a WORTHY ancestry befitting 'the prophet of Allah'. He had the genius to MINE the Bible from among the Hebrew characters, precepts, concepts, thoughts and ideas as a foundation for his new 'scripture'.

14.         All these alleged 'traditions' are only WISHFUL thinking that has been fostered upon the human intellect for the last 1400 years.