In the later editions of the Quran, it represents the first Surah. There are several extremely important documents that show that it was not originally part of the Quranic text but was a later interpolation as a starter and introduction to the Quran.
The manner of its composition shows easily that it is manaddressingAllah unlike most of the other verses of the Quran where it is Allahaddressing man. Its division into seven verses in orthodox Muhammadan tradition is a reflection and a counterpart to the
It is not only western scholars who have recognised the Fatiha's peculiar nature, but also the commentaries by some of the oldest Muhammadan scholars such as Bakr al Asamm (313) who considered it not to be part of the Quran because apparently the oldest versions started with Surat al Baqara.
It is a well known fact that the Fatiha was not included in the Codex of ibn Mas'ud. The Fatiha is in fact found in different forms such as the one among the Shia' a in
Tadhkirat al A'imma by Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (p18, Tehran edition 1331).
It is important to point out, that these variations are not due to grammatical reconstructions or because of any doctrinal significance, but almost certainly due to variations in the transmission of an oral tradition that was later fixed when the Quran was written down in its final form.
Since the order of the Suras of the Quran is not arranged in a chronological manner but based upon the length of the suras thus starting with the Baqara (originally sura no 87) of 286 ayat/verses and ending with al Nas (originally sura no 21) of 6 ayat/verses,it shows that the position of al Fatiha, if it were a sura also, should have been at the very end of the Quran and definitely not at the very beginning.
1: 1In the name of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful. 2Praise be to Allah the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds. 3Most Gracious Most Merciful.4Master of the Day of Judgment.5Thee do we worship and Thine aid we seek. 6 Show us the straight way. 7The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace Those whose (portion) is not wrath and who go not astray.
Studying the words and verses of the above, it is very clear that they represent homage, praise and supplication to Allah and the need for his help.
These words are addressed by Muhammad to Allah since it could not have been Allah praising, paying homage and supplication to himself.
They represent Muhammad's prayers.
What is even more relevant, is the fact that these verses do not start with the Arabic commandment Qul meaning 'Instruct or Tell' as represented in Suras 10:49/50; 17:42; 18: 119; 23:93/97; 34:22-30; 109:1; 112:1; 113:1 and many others.
Hence, to all intents and purposes - and contrary to all other theological double speak - this is not a Surah which was 'revealed' to Muhammad and should not have been given a number.
Abdullah b. Masoud,who was one of the scribes who wrote down the 'revelations' and who knew many of the Suras of the Quran by heart, and was one of the most important transmitters of Hadiths,considered the Fatiha as well as Suras 113 & 114 - both of which contain the words "I take refuge with the Lord" - as not part of the Quran because they could not have been 'uttered' by Allah.
Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 2.5 First rak'ah of fajr
In the first rak'ah, after al-Fatiha, he would recite the verse: [2:136] "Say: We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes, and [in what] was given to Moses and Jesus, and what was given to the Prophets, from their Lord and we do not differentiate between any of them. And we are Muslims."
Al Falaq 113:1Say (Qul):I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn 2 From the mischief of created things; 3 From the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads; 4 From the mischief of those who practice Secret Arts; 5 And from the mischief of the envious one as he practices envy.
Al Nas Sura 114:1 Say (Qul): I seek refuge with the Lord and Cherisher of Mankind 2The King (or Ruler) of Mankind 3The Allah (or Judge) of Mankind 4 From the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil) who withdraws (after his whisper) 5 (The same) who whispers into the hearts of mankind 6 Among Jinns and among Men.