The Quran - as well as the world in general - refer to the Jews (Yahud) in terms of a religious entity,which I would like to prove not to be the case, based entirely on the historical records.
King Solomon was the ruler of the twelve Israelite tribes in the Promised Land.The religion of the Israelites was that given to them by God through Moses. It is the MOSAIC FAITH and in Arabic it is called 'Al Ta'ifa al Moussawiya'.
After he died, his kingdom was divided into TWO distinct territories. (Kings I 12:17-22)
Israel, with its capital Shechem, had TEN of the Israelite tribes under the usurper Jeroboam
Judea, with its capitalJerusalem,had theTWOtribes ofJudahandBenjaminunderSolomon's son,Rehoboamas king.
The people who lived in the Kingdom of Judah were called JUDEANS or JEWS.
NOTE: The people who are born in Arabia, are called Arabs. Those who are born in Armenia are called Armenians; the same goes for the people who were born in Judea,they were called Jews and so are their descendants.
After the dispersal of the Jews and the loss of their physical statehood to Roman occupation c.135CE, the people of Judea (the Jews) and their unique monotheistic religion (Mosaic faith) started to become synonymous in the eyes of others.
As the centuries went by, the nationality of the Jews and their UNIQUE religious beliefs became one and the same in the eyes of the world surrounding them.
With the passage of almost 2000 years of exile from the land of their nativity Judea, even the Jews themselves started accepting this totally erroneous label. They became convinced that they are a religious entity instead of a nationality. They were transformed into Jews, the followers of the Jewish faith.
In this domain - excluding quotes from the Quran and Arab history - I use the word Jew only to describe someone whose ancestral land of nativity wasJudea and whose religion is of the Mosaic (Mousawi) faith. Just as a Christian or a Muhammadan can be of any nationality, race or colour, so can a Mousawi.
One can convert to the Mosaic faith but one cannot convert to be a Jew.One can convert to be a Muhammadan but cannot convert to become an Arab.
One can convert to be a Christian but cannot convert to be an Englishman or a Frenchman for example.
In the Soviet Union, of all places, the identity cards had Jew as a Nationality and not a Religion.
According to the Qarawayoun Manuscript in Fez as translated by A. Guillaum in 'New Light on the Life of Muhammad (fo.60a)' there is a singularly very important if not great revelation to find out that there were land-owning Jews not only in Madina but also in Mecca.
The facts, based on the historical and theological records, show that the word Jew describes a nationality and not a religion.
In the whole of the Torah, the word 'Jew' does not appear.
It was and is the name given to the people who were born in the land of Judea (Yehuda).
This is the description of a national group and not a religious one - unlike in the cases of Christians and Muhammadan Muslims.