Quran & Decalogue:-        

       The Decalogue is the Ten Commandments of the Torah.

       Muhammad's acquaintance and knowledge of many of the important precepts and concepts of the Bible and Apocrypha is impressive in its broadness but very deficient in its understanding; none the less he made excellent use of them in his Quran as the basis of his legislations.

       From the very beginning, the foundation stones of Muhammadan Islam reside on the two commadments of the Hebrew Decalogue:

1.There is no God but God

2. There is no image or likeness to God.

       I would like to bring to the attention of the reader the incredible similarity also between Muhammad's Shahada/Testimony,

       "there is no God but Allah" (Surah 3:18 & 13:30)

and the Hebrews' Shema'

       "Hear O Israel, the Lord God is only one Lord" (Deut.6:4).

       Muhammad did not appreciate or understand the true import and concept of the extreme holiness of the Shabbath in the Bible, so he ignored it; that is why Muhammadan Islam has no day of rest since their holy day, Friday, is only for congregational prayers.
(N/A means not explicitly mandated in the Quran):

                     Torah/Bible                                                         Quran

1.        Exod. 20:3 You shall have no other gods beside Me                3:18; 17:23

2.        Exod. 20:4 You shall make no graven images….                N/A (Implied in Ahadith)

3.        Exod. 20:7 You shall not utter the name of God in vain.        N/A (No such prohibition)

4.        Exod. 20:8 Remember the Sabbath day….                        N/A (No concept of day of
5.        Exod. 20:12 Honour your father and mother…                6:151;17:23;31:14;46:15

6.        Exod. 20:13 You shall not murder…                                6:151

7.        Exod. 20:13 You shall not commit adultery…                        6:151(Implied)

8.        Exod. 20:13 You shall not steal…                                6:151(implied)

9.        Exod. 20:13 You shall not bear false witness…                6:151

10.        Exod. 20:14 You shall not covet…                                6:151(Implied)

             In the Quran it is ASSERTED that Allah gave Moses certain conditions on tablets
(of stone), and also that he gave him nine clear signs. ( Surah 7. l45, and Surah 17. 101.)

        These two statements have perplexed the commentators very much, and every effort is made by them to reconcile the nine signs with the Ten Commandments, although it is evident from the Quran itself, that the nine clear signs refer to the miracles of Moses, the PLAGUES OF EGYPT and the Tablets of the TEN COMMANDMENTS.

7: "145 And We ordained laws for him in the tablets in all matters both commanding and explaining all things (and said): "take and hold these with firmness and enjoin thy people to hold fast by the best in the precepts: soon shall I show you the homes of the wicked (how they lie desolate)."

17:"101 To Moses We did give nine Clear Signs: ask the Children of Israel: when he came to them Pharaoh said to him: "O Moses! I consider thee indeed to have been worked upon by sorcery!"

       According to the alleged traditions, Muhammad himself was more than a little confused in the matter and may to some extent be responsible for the mistakes of the commentators on his book, for it is related (Mishkat, book i. c. ii. pt. 2) that a Jew came to the him and asked him about the nine (sic wonders which appeared by the hands of Moses).
The Prophet said:

       "Do not associate anything with Allah, do not steal, do not commit adultery, do not kill, do not take an innocent before the king to be killed, do not practice magic, do not take interest, do not accuse an innocent woman of adultery, do not run away in battle, and especially for you, O Jews, not to work on the Sabbath."

       `Abdu 'l-Haqq remarks on this tradition that the Jew asked about
the nine (sic) [Ten] miracles (or plagues) of Egypt and the Prophet gave him the
Ten Commandments.

       *** So much for Muhammad's knowledge and comprehension of the
Bible ***        
       A comparison of the Ten Commandments given by the great Jewish law-giver with those recorded in the above tradition, and in the 6th Surah of the Quran, verse 151, will show how imperfectly Muhammad was acquainted with the Torah scriptures.

       The commentator Husain, who wrote four hundred years ago, says the following verses in the Suratu 'l-An`am (6) are those Ten Commandments which in every dispensation are incumbent on mankind, and cannot be abrogated (meaning undoubtedly the
Ten Commandments from Moses).

6: 151 "SAY: Come, I will rehearse what your Lord hath made binding on you - (1) that ye assign not aught to Him as a partner: (2) and that ye be good to your parents: (3) and that ye slay not your children, beause of poverty; for them and for you will we provide: (4) and that ye come not near to pollutions, outward or inward: (5) and that ye slay not anyone whom Allah hath forbidden you, unless for a just cause. This hath he enjoined on you, to the intent that ye may understand.

      152 (6) And come not nigh to the substance of the orphan but to improve it, until he came of age: (7) and use a full measure, and a just balance: We will not task a soul beyond its ability. (8) And when ye give judgment, observe justice, even though if be the affair a kinsman, (9) and fulfill the covenant of Allah. This hath Allah enjoined you for your monition - And, 'this is my right way.' Follow it then: (10) and follow not other paths lest ye be scattered from His path. This hath He enjoined on that we may fear Him"

       *** Muhammad's understanding of the Decalogue is of course very simplistic and inaccurate since items: 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 are not part of it but  are Muhammad's own rules applicable to his followers only ***

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.10        Narrated byAnas bin Malik
The Prophet said, "The biggest of Al-Kaba'ir (the great sins) are (1) to join others as partners in worship with Allah, (2) to murder a human being, (3) to be undutiful to one's parents (4) and to make a false statement," or said, "to give a false witness."