Tafsir / Exegesis:-                       

              Exegesis. A system of interpretation of the Quran which follows a similar methodology as that used by the Rabbis in their interpretation of the Torah.

The five traditional sources for commentary of the Quran are:

1        The Qur'an.

       This is regarded as the highest form of tafsir, on the belief that the Qu'ran is the word of Almighty God and authoritative when it explains itself. A related Muslim belief is that the Qur'an is c) free of contradiction, and that apparent inconsistencies in its message are inevitably resolved through closer study of the Qur'anic text.

2        The Hadiths.

       Muslims believe that Muhammad was sent, among other reasons, to explain and clarify the Qur'an to people. The accounts of Muhammad's teaching recorded in the hadith collections thus contain much tafsir of the Qur'an, under titles such as "Meaning of Qur'anic verses." An authenticated hadith is regarded the second highest form of tafsir, because the Islamic prophet is explaining it -- but many of these traditions are disputed.

3        The reports of the Sahaba.

       The Sahaba, or companions of Muhammad, also interpreted and taught the Qur'an. If Qur'anic explication is absent, and there is no authentic tradition deriving from Muhammad, then a consensus of the companions may be helpful in interpreting a certain verse. Scholars have an obligation to follow that consensus.

4        The reports of those who learned from the companions.

       These people grew up in an environment with people who had known the Prophet, so their insight is the next in line of the sources of tafsir. (In addition, the recorded practice of those who lived in the Prophet's city of Medina carry special weight in the Maliki school.)

5        Reason.

       A qualified scholar's personal reasoning (deductive logic and personal evaluation of arguments) is the final method of understanding the Qur'an; it exists in conjunction with the other four. See Ijtihad. Early caliphs are strongly associated with this method of tafsir.

Quranic Exegesis:-


Tafsir ibn Kathir — 1301-1373

Tafsir al-Qurtubi — d. 1273

Tafsir al-Tabari — 838–923

Tafsir al-Jalalayn — 1464-1526

Ma'ariful Quran —


Tafsir al-Mizan — 1892-1981

Sunni tafsir

Tanwir al-Miqbas —  ?

Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer —  ?

Tafsir al-Baghawi — 1116

Tafsir of Fakhr al-Din — 1149–1209

Dur al-Manthur — 1464-1526

Fi zilal al-Qur'an — 1954

Tafhim al-Qur'an — 1903-1979

Tadabbur-i-Qur’an — 1904–1997

Shi'a tafsir

Holy Quran (puya) — ?

Majma al-Bayan — d. 1153

Nuur al-Thaqalayn — ?

al-Safi — 1598 or 9-1680 or 81