The Quran - as well as the world in general - refer to the Jews (Yahud) in terms of a religious entity, which I would like to prove not to be the case.
The facts, based on the historical and theological records, show that the word Jew describes a nationality and not a religion.
In the whole of the Torah, the word 'Jew' does not appear. It was and is, the name given to the people who were born in the land of Judea (Yehuda). This is the description of a national group and not a religious one - unlike in the cases of Christians and Muhammadans.
After their dispersal and loss of their physical statehood to Roman Imperial occupation after 135CE, the people of Judea (the Jews/ Yahud) and their unique monotheistic religion (Mosaic faith/ Moussawi) started to become synonymous in the eyes of others. As the centuries went by, the Jews became identified as - and have even convinced themselves that they are - a religious entity instead of a nationality. They became Jews, the followers of the Jewish Faith.
In this thesis - excluding quotes from the Quran and Arab history- I use the word Jew only to describe someone whose ancestral land of nativity was Judea and whose religion is of the Mosaic (Mousawi) faith.
Just as a Christian or a Muhammadan can be of any nationality, race or colour, so can a Mousawi. One can convert to the Mosaic faith but one cannot convert to be a Jew. One can convert to be a Muhammadan but cannot convert to become an Arab. One can convert to be a Christian but cannot convert to be an Englishman or a Frenchman for example.
Remarkably, in the Soviet Union, the identity cards had Jew stamped as a Nationality and not a religion.
Moreover, in Iraq for example, the Jews were refrerred to as
'Al ta'ifa al Moussawiya'; that is ' the sect followers of Moses'.
According to the Qarawayoun Manuscript in Fez as translated by A. Guillaum in "New Light on the Life of Muhammad (fo.60a) " there is a singularly very important if not great revelation to find out that there were land-owning Jews not only in Madina but also in Mecca.
Even more remarkable are the verses in the Quran which use the term
'Al Latheena Hadoo' meaning those among the native Pagan Arabs who CONVERTED to the RELIGION of the JEWS.
(Look up Judaized/Hadoo in the Definitions Section)
The word HADOO appears several times in the Quran with the wrong translation. It ALWAYS follows the expression ALLATHEENA meaning THOSE WHO.
Hadoo does NOT mean JEWS - which in Arabic is only YAHUD- but 'those Arabs (who) had converted to the faith of the Jews'.
They of course practiced and behaved from the religious point of view in the same manner as those who originated in Judea, the home of their nativity. These were native and aboriginal Arabs who had as much right as Muhammad to exist in the Peninsula of their forefathers but who were subsequently massactred, pillaged, robbed, raped, enslaved and expelled from the country of their origin by Muhammad and his followers.
The term ALLATHEENA does not appear anytime or anywhere in front of the Christians, Sabeans or any others, only infront of the Judaized Arabs.
2: 62 Lo! those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews [Allatheena Hadoo], and Christians, and Sabaeans whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
*** From the linguistic point of view, the Quran should have said
Al Yahood = the Jews instead of Allatheena Hadoo if it meant Jews only and NOT converts ***
It is interesting to note that the word HUDA meaning Guide is associated with the word Hadoo that is Guided (in the path of righteousness).
2: 111 And they say: "None shall enter paradise unless he be a Jew [Hoodda]or a Christian." Those are their (vain) desires. Say: "Produce your proof if ye are truthful."
2: 113 And the Jews [Yahood] say the Christians follow nothing (true), and the Christians say the Jews follow nothing (true); yet both are readers of the Scripture. Even thus speak those who know not. Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they differ.
2: 120 And the Jews [Yahood] will not be pleased with thee, nor will the Christians, till thou follow their creed. Say: Lo! the guidance of Allah (Himself) is Guidance [Hooda]. And if thou shouldst follow their desires after the knowledge which hath come unto thee, then wouldst thou have from Allah no protecting friend nor helper.
2:135 And they say: BeJews [Hoodan] or Christians, then ye will be rightly guided [tahdadoo]. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Nay, but (we follow) the religion of Abraham, the upright, and he was not of the idolaters.
2:140 Or say ye that Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews [Hoodda] or Christians? Say: Do ye know best, or doth Allah? And who is more unjust than he who hideth a testimony which he hath received from Allah? Allah is not unaware of what ye do.
4: 46 Some of those who are Jews [Allatheena Hadoo] change words from their context and say: "We hear and disobey; hear thou as one who heareth not" and "Listen to us!" distorting with their tongues and slandering religion. If they had said: "We hear and we obey; hear thou, and look at us" it had been better for them, and more upright. But Allah hath cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not, save a few.
4: 160 Because of the wrongdoing of the Jews [Allatheena Hadoo] We forbade them good things which were (before) made lawful unto them, and because of their much hindering from Allah's way,
5: 18 The Jews [Yahood] and Christians say: We are sons of Allah and His loved ones. Say: Why then doth He chastise you for your sins? Nay, ye are but mortals of His creating. He forgiveth whom He will, and chastiseth whom He will. Allah's is the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, and unto Him is the journeying.
5: 41 O Messenger! Let not them grieve thee who vie one with another in the race to disbelief, of such as say with their mouths: "We believe," but their hearts believe not, and of the Jews [Allatheena Hadoo]: listeners for the sake of falsehood, listeners on behalf of other folk who come not unto thee, changing words from their context and saying: If this be given unto you, receive it but if this be not given unto you, then beware! He whom Allah doometh unto sin, thou (by thine efforts) wilt avail him naught against Allah. Those are they for whom the will of Allah is that He cleanse not their hearts. Theirs in the world will be ignominy, and in the Hereafter an awful doom;
5: 44 Lo! We did reveal the Torah, wherein is guidance [Huda] and a light, by which the Prophets who surrendered (unto Allah) [Aslamoo] judged the Jews [Allatheena Hadoo], and the rabbis and the priests (judged) by such of Allah's Scripture as they were bidden to observe, and thereunto were they witnesses. So fear not mankind, but fear Me. And barter not My revelations for a little gain. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are disbelievers.
5: 64 The Jews [Yahood] say: Allah's hand is fettered. Their hands are fettered and they are accursed for saying so. Nay, but both His hands are spread out wide in bounty. He bestoweth as He will. That which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord is certain to increase the contumacy and disbelief of many of them, and We have cast among them enmity and hatred till the Day of Resurrection. As often as they light a fire for war, Allah extinguisheth it. Their effort is for corruption in the land, and Allah loveth not corrupters.
5: 51 O ye who believe! Take not the Jews [Yahood] and Christians for friends. They are friends one to another. He among you who taketh them for friends is (one) of them. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.
5: 69 Lo! those who believe, and those who are Jews [Allatheena Hadoo], and Sabaeans, and Christians whosoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
5: 82 Thou wilt find the most vehement of mankind in hostility to those who believe (to be) the Jews[Yahood] and the idolaters. And thou wilt find the nearest of them in affection to those who believe (to be) those who say: Lo! We are Christians. That is because there are among them priests and monks, and because they are not proud.
6:146> For those who followed the Jewish Law [Allatheena Hadoo] We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof and We forbade them the fat of the ox and the sheep except what adheres to their backs or their entrails or is mixed up with a bone: this in recompense for their wilful disobedience: for We are True (in Our ordinances).
*** The JEWS are a NATIONAL group (NATIONALITY) just like Armenians, French, English or Indians for example.
Their RELIGION is based on the Torah, the Mosaic Law ***