*** In most of the Quran, the Biblical characters mentioned there in, are almost invariably, two-dimensional, without historical or situational background; without 'life'; totally insipid and un-interesting.
They come on the scene, all of a sudden, without relevance to the preceding story or event. In general, they are lifeless and totally uninspiring; in complete contrast to their living portrayal in the Bible ***
2We have not sent down the Qur'an to thee to be (an occasion) for thy distress
3But only as an admonition to those who fear (Allah)
4>A revelation from Him Who created the earth and the heavens on high.
5>(Allah) Most Gracious is firmly established on the throne (of authority).
6>To Him belongs what is in the heavens and on earth and all between them and all beneath the soil.
7>If thou pronounce the word aloud (it is no matter): for verily He knoweth what is secret and what is yet more hidden.
8>Allah! there is no god but He! To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names.
9>Has the story of Moses reached thee?
#2540 The story of Moses in its different incidents is told in many places in the Qur-an, and in each case the phase most appropriate in the context is referred to or emphasised. In ii. 49-61, it was a phase from the religious history of mankind; in vii. 103-162, it was a phase from the story of the Ummat (or nation) of Israel, and the story was continued to the times after Moses, in xvii. 101-103, we have a picture of the decline of a soul in the arrogance of Pharaoh; here, in xx. 9-24, we have a picture of the rise of a soul in the commission given to Moses from Allah; in xx. 25-36, we have his spiritual relationship with his brother Aaron; in xx. 37-40, we have his spiritual relation with his mother and sister, and his upbringing; in xx. 41-76, we have his spiritual combat with Pharaoh; and in xx. 77-98, we have his spiritual combat with his own people, the Israelites. For other incidents, consult the Index.#
*** It must be pointed out to the unwary reader, that almost the entirety of this Surah regarding the story of Moses and his deeds, is NOT Biblical but allegorical, many of which are plagiarized from Jewish non canonical traditions ***
10>Behold he saw a fire: so he said to his family "Tarry ye; I perceive a fire; perhaps I can bring you some burning brand therefrom or find some guidance at the fire."
#2541 A fire: It appeared like an ordinary fire, which always betokens the presence of men in a desert or a lonely place. Moses made for it alone, to fetch the wherewithal for making a fire for his family, and perhaps to find some direction as to the way, from the people he should meet there. But it was not an ordinary fire. It was a Burning Bush: a Sign of the Glory of Allah. 2542 The spiritual history of Moses begins here. It was the beginning of his mission. His physical life, infancy, and upbringing are referred to later on, to illustrate another point. Moses, when he grew up, left the palace of Pharaoh and went to the Midianite people, in the Sinai peninsula. He married among them, and was now travelling with his family, when he was called to his mission by Allah. He went to look for a fire for comfort and guidance. He found a higher and holier comfort and guidance. The whole passage is full of portent meaning, which is reflected in the short rhymed verses in the original.#
*** The interpreter's version of the story of Moses is not from the Bible but is his own. This part is from
Exodus 3:"1. And Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock far away into the desert, and came to the mountain of God, to Horeb 2. And the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed 3. And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt"
The Quran and the interpreter fail to explain to the reader, that this was not an ordinary fire, but a miracle, since the bush did not burn in the fire.
Invariably, the details of the Biblical stories are completely missing in the Quranic version, making them sterile, uninspiring and not as uplifting as they are in the Biblical original ***
11>But when he came to the fire a voice was heard: "O Moses!
12> "Verily I am thy Lord! Therefore (in My presence) put off thy shoes: thou art in the sacred valley Tuwa.
#2543 The shoes are to be put off as a mark of respect. Moses was now to put away his mere worldly interests, he having been chosen by Allah, the Most High. 2544 This was the valley just below Mount Sinai, where subsequently he was to receive the Torah.#
*** Tuwa - also in (79:16) - is not near Mt Sinai. The Bible does not mention this name nor that of any valley where the bush was burning. This is just another Quranic spin on the Biblical story
Exodus 3:" 4. And when the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I 5. And he said, Do not come any closer; take off your shoes from your feet, for the place on which you stand is holy ground"
to which unfortunately, the inerpreter had no other alternative but to subscribe ***
13>"I have chosen thee: listen then to the inspiration (sent to thee).
14>"Verily I am Allah: there is no god but I: so serve thou me (only) and establish regular prayer for celebrating My praise.
15>"Verily the Hour is coming My design is to keep it hidden for every soul to receive its reward by the measure of its endeavor.
16>"Therefore let not such as believe not therein but follow their own lusts divert thee therefrom lest thou perish!"
17>And what is that in thy right hand O Moses?"
18>He said "It is my rod: on it I lean; with it I beat down fodder for my flocks; and in it I find other uses."
19>(Allah) said "Throw it O Moses!"
20:20> He threw it and behold! it was a snake active in motion
#2549 Cf. vii. 107, where a different word (thu'ban) is used for "snake", and the qualifying adjective is "plain (for all to see)". The scene there is before Pharaoh and his magicians and people: the object is to show the hollowness of their magic by a miracle: the rod appears before them as a long and creeping writhing serpent. Here there is a sign to present Allah's power to Moses's mind and understanding: the rod becomes a Haiy (a live snake), and its active motion is what is most to be impressed on the mind of Moses, for there were no other spectators.#
*** Verses 19-20 are from
Exodus 4: 3 " And he said, Throw it to the ground. And he threw it to the ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from it" ***
21>(Allah) said "Seize it and fear not: We shall return it at once to its former condition"...
*** Exodus 4:4" And the Lord said to Moses, Put forth your hand, and take it by the tail. And he put forth his hand, and caught it, and it became a rod in his hand"***
22>Now draw thy hand close to thy side: it shall come forth white (and shining) without harm (or stain) as another Sign
#2550 The second of the greater Miracles shown to Moses was the "White (shining) Hand". Ordinarily, when the skin becomes white, it is a sign of disease, leprosy or something loathsome. Here there was no question of disease: on the contrary, the hand was glorified, and it shone as with a divine light. Such a miracle was beyond Egyptian or human magic.#
*** Exodus 4:7" And he said, Put your hand into your bosom again. And he put his hand into his bosom again; and plucked it from his bosom, and, behold, it was turned again as his other flesh" ***
23>"In order that We may show thee (two) of Our Greater Signs.
24>"Go thou to Pharaoh for he had indeed transgressed all bounds.
25>(Moses) said: "O my Lord! expand me my breast;"
26>"Ease my task for me;
27>"And remove the impediment from my speech.
28>"So they may understand what I say:
29>"And give me a Minister from my family
30>"Aaron my brother;
31>"Add to my strength through him
32>"And make him share my task:
33>"That we may celebrate Thy praise without stint
34>"And remember Thee without stint:
35>For Thou art He that (ever) regardeth us."
36>(Allah) said: "Granted is thy prayer O Moses!"
37>"And indeed We conferred a favor on thee another time (before).
38>"Behold! We sent to thy mother by inspiration the message
39>" Throw (the child) into the chest and throw (the chest) into the river: the river will cast him up on the bank and he will be taken up by one who is an enemy to Me and an enemy to him': but I cast (the garment of) love over thee from Me: and (this) in order that thou mayest be reared under Mine eye.
#2558 Pharaoh was an enemy to Allah, because he was puffed up and he blasphemed, claiming to be God himself. He was an enemy to the child Moses, because he hated the Israelites and wanted to have their male children killed; also because Moses stood for Allah's revelation to come. 2559 Allah made the child comely and lovable, and he attracted the love of the very people who, on general grounds, would have killed him. 2560 See n. 2558 above. By making the child Moses so attractive as to be adopted into Pharaoh's household, not only was Moses brought up in the best way possible from an earthly point of view, but Allah's special Providence looked after him in bringing his mother to him, as stated in the next verse, and thus nourishing him on his mother's milk and keeping him in touch with his family#
*** Exodus 2: 3 " And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark made of reeds, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the child in it; and she laid it in the rushes by the river's brink" ***
20:40> "Behold! thy sister goeth forth and saith `Shall I show you one who will nurse and rear the (child)?' So We brought thee back to thy mother that her eye might be cooled and she should not grieve. Then thou didst slay a man but We saved thee from trouble and We tired thee in various ways. Then didst thou tarry a number of years with the people of Midian. Then didst thou come hither as ordained O Moses!
#2561 We may suppose that the anxious mother, after the child was floated on the water, sent the child's sister to follow the chest from the bank and see where and by whom it was picked up. When it was picked up by Pharaoh's own family and they seemed to love the child, she appeared like a stranger before them, and said, "Shall I search out a good wet-nurse for the child, that she may rear the child you are going to adopt?" That was exactly what they wanted. She ran home and told her mother. The mother was delighted to come and fold the infant in her arms again and feed it at her own breast, and all openly and without any concealment. 2562 The mother's eyes had, we may imagine, been sore with scalding tears at the separation from her baby. Now they were cooled: a phrase meaning that her heart was comforted. 2563 Years passed. The child grew up. In outward learning he was of the house of Pharaoh. In his inner soul and sympathy he was of Israel. One day, he went to the Israelite colony and saw all the Egyptian oppression under which Israel laboured. He saw an Egyptian smiting an Israelite, apparently with impunity. Moses felt brotherly sympathy and smote the Egyptian. He did not intend to kill him, but in fact the Egyptian died of the blow. When this became known, his position in Pharaoh's household became impossible. So he fled out of Egypt, and was only saved by Allah's grace. He fled to the Sinai Peninsula, to the land of the Midianites, and had various adventures. He married one of the daughters of the Midianite chief, and lived with the Medianites for many years, as an Egyptian stranger. He had many trials and temptations, but he retained his integrity of character 2564 See last note. After many years spent in a quiet life, grazing his father-in-law's flocks, he came one day to the valley of Tuwa underneath the great mountain mass of Sinai, called Tur (in Arabic). The peak on the Arabian side (where Moses was) was called Horeb by the Hebrews. Then was fulfilled Allah's Plan: he saw the fire in the distance, and when he went up, he was addressed by Allah and chosen to be Allah's Messenger for that age.#
*** The interpreter, as usual, uses the original explanations from the Bible, by repeating chapter and verse from them, to illustrate and elucidate the otherwise totally un-intelligible Quranic stories.
He, unashamedly and exhaustively does so, and yet complains that the Bible has been 'altered' by the Jews. He, of course, does not, and cannot tell the reader, how it is possible for him to be able to tell, which verses are altered and which are not.
The above verse is based upon
Exodus 2: 7 " Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, Shall I go and call for you a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for you?" ***
41>"And I have prepared thee for Myself (for service)"...
42>"Go thou and thy brother with My Signs and slacken not either of you in keeping Me in remembrance.
#2565 We may suppose that Moses had fled alone to the land of Midian, and that he had now come alone (with his family but not with his brother) to Tuwa, as described in n. 2542 above. When he was honoured with his mission, and was granted his request that his brother Aaron should accompany him, we may suppose that he took steps to get Aaron to come to him, and their meeting was in Tuwa. Some time may be supposed to have elapsed before they were in Egypt, and then they prayed, and received these directions in their Egyptian home. Aaron was either an elder or a younger brother, we are not told which. In either case he was born when the ban on Israelite new-born babes was not in operation. Moses had been out of touch with him, and it speaks greatly for his family affection that he remembered him and prayed for his comradeship in the most serious spiritual work of his life.#
43>"Go both of you to Pharaoh for he has indeed transgressed all bounds;
#2566 Their mission was in the first instance to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians, and then to lead Israel out of Egypt. 2567 Compare the same phrase in xx. 24. Having glanced at the early life of Moses we come back now to the time when Moses's actual ministry begins. The earlier personal story of Moses is rounded off.#
44>"But speak to him mildly; perchance he may take warning or fear (Allah)."
#2568 So far Pharaoh in his inordinate vanity had forgotten himself and forgotten how small a creature he was before Allah. This was to be brought to his recollection, so that he might perhaps repent and believe, or at least be deterred by fear from "transgressing all bounds". Some men eschew wrong from sincere love of Allah and understanding of their fellow-men, and some (of coarser minds) from the fear of consequences. Even the latter conduct may be a step to the former.#
45>They (Moses and Aaron) said: "Our Lord! we fear lest He hasten with insolence against us or lest he transgress all bounds."
#2569 They were now in Egypt (see n. 2565 above) and therefore in the power of the Pharaoh. The local atmosphere called for the greatest courage and firmness on their part to carry out the dangerous mission which had been entrusted to them.#
46>He said: "Fear not: for I am with you: I hear and see (everything).
20:47> "So go ye both to him and say `Verily we are apostles sent by thy Lord: send forth therefore the Children of Israel with us and afflict them not: with a Sign indeed have we come from thy Lord! And peace to all who follow guidance!
#2570 The Children of Israel were subjected to all sorts of oppression and indignities. They were given hard tasks; their leaders were unjustly beaten; they were forced to make bricks without straw; and they "groaned in bondage" (Exod. v. 6-19. vi. 5). 2571 Allah, in His infinite Mercy, always offers Peace to the most hardened sinners, even those who are warring against Him. But, as stated in the next verse, their defiance cannot go on with impunity indefinitely. The punishment must inevitably come for sin, whether the sinner is great or small.#
*** This is a paraphrasing of
Exodus 4: 22" And you shall say to Pharaoh, Thus said the Lord, Israel is my son, my firstborn...."
Once again, the reader must be reminded, that all the above verses do not remotely represent the Biblical version of events, but are Muhammad's own allegories, many of which are based mostly on non Biblical,Jewish traditions, with suitable variations ***
48>" `Verily it has been revealed to us that the Penalty (awaits) those who reject and turn away.' "
49>(When this message was delivered) (Pharaoh) said: "Who then O Moses is the Lord of you two?"
50>He said: "Our Lord is He Who gave to each (created) thing its form and nature and further gave (it) guidance
51>(Pharaoh) said: "What then is the condition of previous generations?"
52>He replied: "The knowledge of that is with my Lord duly recorded: my Lord never errs nor forgets
53>"He Who has made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to go about therein by roads (and channels); and has sent down water from the sky." With it have We produced divers pairs of plants each separate from the others.
54>Eat (for yourselves) and pasture your cattle: verily in this are Signs for men endued with understanding.
55>From the (earth) did We create you and into it shall We return you and from it shall We bring you out once again
#2579The verse ought really to go into the last Section.#
*** This is one of the very rare TRUE comments made by the interpreter so far; this verse should not have appeared so suddenly and without any logical reason in the middle of the narrative.
All the concepts contained in the verse above, are copied from the traditions of the Jews and the Bible ***
56>And We showed Pharaoh all Our Signs but he did reject and refuse.
57>He said: "Hast thou come to drive us out of our land with thy magic O Moses?
58>"But we can surely produce magic to match thine! So make a tryst between us and thee which we shall not fail to keep neither we nor thou in a place where both shall have even chances."
59>Moses said: "Your tryst is the Day of the Festival and let the people be assembled when the sun is well up."
60>So Pharaoh withdrew: he concerted his plan and then came (back).
61>Moses said to him: "Woe to you! forge not ye a lie against Allah lest He destroy you (at once) utterly by chastisement: the forger must suffer frustration!"
62>So they disputed one with another over their affair but they kept their talk secret.
63>They said: "These two are certainly (expert) magicians: their object is to drive you out from your land with their magic and to do away with your Most cherished institutions.
64>"Therefore concert your plan. And then assemble in (serried) ranks: he wins (all along) today who gains the upper hand."
65>They said: "O Moses! whether wilt thou that thou throw (first) or that we be the first to throw?"
66>He said "Nay throw ye first!" Then behold their ropes and their rods so it seemed to him on account of their magic began to be in lively motion!
67>So Moses conceived in his mind a (sort of) fear.
68>We said: "Fear not! for thou hast indeed the upper hand:
69>"Throw that which is in thy right hand: quickly will it swallow up that which they have faked. What they have faked is but a magician's trick: and the magician thrives not (no matter) where he goes."
70>So the magicians were thrown down to prostration: they said "We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses."
71>(Pharaoh) said: "Believe ye in Him before I give you permission? Surely this must be your leader who has taught you magic! Be sure I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides and I will have you crucified on trunks of palm-trees: So shall ye know for certain which of us can give the more severe and the more lasting Punishment!"
72>They said: "Never shall we regard thee as more than the Clear Signs that have come to us or than Him Who created us! So decree whatever thou desirest to decree: for thou canst only decree (touching) the life of this world.
73>For us we have believed in our Lord: may He forgive us our faults and the magic to which thou didst compel us: for Allah is Best and Most Abiding."
74>Verily he who comes to his Lord as a sinner (at judgment) for him is Hell: therein shall he neither die nor live.
75>But such as comes to Him as Believers who have worked righteous deeds--for them are ranks exalted
76>Gardens of Eternity beneath which flow rivers: they will dwell therein for aye: such is the reward of those who purify themselves (from evil)
77>We sent an inspiration to Moses: "Travel by night [Asri] with my servants and strike a dry path for them through the sea without fear of being overtaken (by Pharaoh) and without (any other) fear."
#2599 Time passes, and at last Moses is commanded to leave Egypt with his people by night. They were to cross the Red Sea into the Sinai Peninsula. They were told to have no fear of Pharaoh or of the sea or of the unknown desert country of Sinai into which they were going. They crossed dry-shod, while Pharaoh who came in pursuit with his troops was overwhelmed by the sea. He and his men all perished. There is no emphasis on this episode here. But the emphasis is laid on the hard task which Moses had with his own people after he had delivered them from the Egyptian bondage.#
*** As usual in the Quran, the stories plundered from the Bible are neither complete nor sequential in narrative; they are disjointed and meander all over time and space.
In this version of the story of Moses and Aharon, the confrontations with Pharaoh and the Plagues are not even hinted upon but jump from the first meeting to the crossing of the Sea of Reeds in one instance. The reader is left without the mouth watering juicy and heart of the story ***
78>Then Pharaoh pursued them with his forces but the waters completely overwhelmed them and covered them up.
79>Pharaoh led his people astray instead of leading them aright.
#2600 It is the duty of kings and leaders to give the right lead of their people. Instead of that, the evil ones among them lead them astray and are the cause of the whole of the people perishing#
80>O ye Children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy and We made a Covenant with you on the side of Mount (Sinai) and We sent down to you Manna and quails:
#2601 Right side: Cf. xix. 52, and n. 2504, towards the end. The Arabian side of Sinai (Jabal Musa) was the place where Moses first received his commission before going to Egypt, and also where he received the Torah after the Exodus from Egypt#
*** Repeat of 2:57 and 7:159 ***
81>(Saying): "Eat of the good things We have provided for your sustenance but commit no excess therein lest My Wrath should justly descend on you: and those on whom descends My Wrath do perish indeed!
#2603 This gives the key-note to Moses's constant tussle with his own people, and introduces immediately afterwards the incident of the golden calf.#
82>"But without doubt I am (also) He that forgives again and again to those who repent believe and do right who in fine are ready to receive true guidance."
20:83> (When Moses was up on the mount Allah said:) "What made thee hasten in advance of thy people O Moses?"
#2604 This was when Moses was up on the Mount for forty days and forty nights: ii. 51, and n. 66. Moses had left the elders of Israel with Aaron behind him: Exod. xxiv. 14. While he was in a state of ecstatic honour on the Mount, his people were enacting strange scenes down below. They were tested and tried, and they failed in the trial. They made a golden calf for worship, as described below. See also vii. 148-150 and notes.#
84>He replied: "Behold they are close on my footsteps: I hastened to Thee o my Lord to please Thee."
85>(Allah) said: "We have tested thy people in thy absence: the Samiri has led them astray."
#2605 Who was this Samiri? If it was his personal name, it was sufficiently near the meaning of the original root-word to have the definite article attached to it: Cf. the name of the Khalifa Mu'tasim (Al-Mu'tasim). What was the root for "Samiri"? If we look to old Egyptian, we have Shemer=A stranger, foreigner (Sir E.A. Wallis Budge's Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, 1920,p. 815 b). As the Israelites had just left Egypt, they might quite well have among them an Egyptianised Hebrew bearing that nickname. That the name Shemer was subsequently not unknown among the Hebrews is clear from the Old Testament. In I Kings, xvi. 21 we read that Omri, king of Israel, the northern portion of the divided kingdom, who reigned about 903-896 B.C., built a new city, Samaria, on a hill which he bought from Shemer, the owner of the hill, for two talents of silver. See also Renan: History of Israel, ii. 210. For a further discussion of the word, see n. 2608 below.#
*** There are numerous words in the Quran whose roots are not in the Arabic language but in Hebrew, Aramaic, Persian, Abyssinian, Greek, Indian, Syriac and Egyptian.
For lack of explaining the word Samiri, the interpreter went to enormously convoluted lengths to find one.
In the Biblical original, this word does not exist.Whatever the meaning the Quran had in mind, cannot now be ascertained, and it would have been wiser for the interpreter to leave it alone.
In the tradition of the Jews, there were thousands of non-Israelites among the people of the Exodus and not only the one mentioned by the interpreter ***
86>So Moses returned to his people in state of indignation and sorrow. He said: "O my people! did not your Lord make a handsome promise to you? Did then the promise seem to you long (in coming)? Or did ye desire that Wrath should descend from your Lord on you and so ye broke your promise to me?"
#2606 There are two promises referred to in this verse, the promise of Allah and the promise of the people of Israel. They form one Convenant, which was entered into through their leader Moses. See xx. 80, and ii. 63, n. 78. Allah's promise was to protect them and lead them to the Promised Land, and their promise was to obey Allah's Law and His commandments.#
*** Since both parts of the above promise were fulfilled, then how is it that the modern Arabs claim that Israel, the Promised Land for the Israelites, belongs to them? ***
87>They said: "We broke not the promise to thee as far as lay in our power: but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the (whole) people and we threw them (into the fire) and that was what the Samiri suggested.
#2607 Cf. Exod. xii. 35-36: the Israelites, before they left Egypt, borrowed from the Egyptians "jewels of silver and jewels of gold, and raiment"; and "they spoiled the Egyptians" i.e., stripped them of all their valuable jewellery. Note that the answer of the backsliders is disingenuous in various ways. (1) The Samiri was no doubt responsible for suggesting the making of the golden calf, but they could not on that account disclaim responsibility for themselves: the burden of the sin is on him who commits it, and he cannot pretend that he was powerless to avoid it. (2) At most the weight of the gold they carried could not have been heavy even if one or two men carried it, but would have been negligible if distributed. (3) Gold is valuable, and it is not likely that if they wanted to disburden themselves of it, they had any need to light a furnace, melt it, and cast it into the shape of a calf. 2608 See n. 2605 about the Samiri. If the Egyptian origin of the root is not accepted we have a Hebrew origin in "Shomer" a guard, watchman, sentinel. The Samiri may have been a watchman, in fact or by nickname.#
*** Once more, the interpreter stretches credulity into oblivion because the Quranic version of the Exodus story is not only disjointed, but does not even conform to the Biblical original upon which he has been depending to explain most of the other Quranic verses ***
20:88> "Then he brought out (of the fire) before the (people) the image of a calf: it seemed to low: so they said: `This is your god and the god of Moses but (Moses) has forgotten!' "
#2611 Moses has forgotten: i.e., 'forgotten both us and his god. He has been gone for so many days. He is searching for a god on the Mount when his god is really here!' This is spoken by the Samiri and his partisans, but the people as a whole accepted it, and it therefore, becomes their speech.#
*** The origin of this fiction we find in a Jewish tradition attributed to Pirke Rabbi Eleazer as follows:
"The calf having cried aloud, came forth, and the children of Israel saw it" Rabbi Yahuda says that Sammael from the inside of it made the cry of the calf in order to lead the Israelites astray."
No doubt, Muhammad in this matter, got his information from the Jews; strange that he should have been led to adopt this baseless tale. In spite of this, he then used the wrong name, Al Sameri.
The name of the people, of course, occurs often in the Bible, and the Jews regarded the Samaritans as their enemies; but, as the city of Samaria did not arise till some four hundred years after Moses, it is difficult to imagine how it came to be entered in this story.
No doubt, Muhammad thought that the Torah said Sameri (Samaritan) when it actually said Sammael.
Tradition, regarded Sammael as the angel of death. It should also be noted, that in this matter, the Quran is in opposition to the Torah, which tells us that Aaron was the person who for fear of the Israelites around him, had the molten calf set up.
Another story, given us twice in the Quran,(Surah 2:28, Surah 4:152)is that when the Israelites insisted on seeing God, they were punished by death, but eventually restored to life again; and to add to the foolish tale we are told that it was the Torah that appealed for help and thus obtained their revival ***
89>Could they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer) and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good?
20:90> Aaron had already before this said to them: "O my people! ye are being tested in this: for verily your Lord [Rabbukum] is [al Rahman] (Allah) Most Gracious: so follow me and obey my command."
#2613 "Resist this temptation: you are being tested in this. Do not follow after the semi-Egyptian Samiri, but obey me." 2614 The Bible story makes Aaron the culprit, which is inconsistent with his office as the high priest of Allah and the right hand of Moses. See n. 1116 to vii. 150. Our version is more consistent, and explains in the Samiri the lingering influences of the Egyptian cult of Osiris the bull-god.#
*** The indefatigable and tirelessly propagandistic interpreter is declaring, that the Quranic version is superior in content to that of the original Biblical one. His absurd conclusions in general, are matched only by his indecent and persistent mendacity. He at least admits, that 'our version' is actually a tampering and altering of the original story to suit the new Cult Belief System.
Most important of all, is his misrepresentation of the name alRahman to 'Allah, Most Gracious' so as to mislead the reader to the fact that during his earlier Mecca period, Muhammad mentioned al Rahman which was the name of the supreme god of the Yemenites, from which Muhammad's allegiance was later conveniently transferred to the supreme god of the Ka'ba, Allah.
Al Rahman was the name of the god of the Yemen and not an attribute (gracious) ***
91>They had said: "We will not abandon this cult but we will devote ourselves to it until Moses returns to us.
#2615 Obviously Aaron's speech in the last verse, and the rebels' defiance in this verse, were spoken before the return of Moses from the Mount. 2616 The rebels had so little faith that they had given Moses up for lost, and never expected to see him again.#
92>(Moses) said: " O Aaron! what kept thee back when thou sawest them going wrong
93>"From following me? Didst thou then disobey my order?"
# 2617 Moses, when he came back, was full of anger and grief. His speech to Aaron is one of rebuke, and he was also inclined to handle him roughly: see next verse. The order he refers to is that stated in vii. 142, "Act for me amongst my people: do right, and follow not the way of those who do mischief."#
94>(Aaron) replied: "O son of my mother! seize (me not) by my beard nor by (the hair of) my head! Truly I feared lest thou shouldst say `Thou hast caused a division among the Children of Israel and thou didst not respect my word!'"
#2619 This reply of Aaron's is in no way inconsistent with the reply as noted in vii. 150. On the contrary there is a dramatic aptness in the different points emphasised on each occasion. In S. vii. we were discussing the Ummat of Israel, and Aaron rightly says, "The people did indeed reckon me as naught, and went near to slay me!" In addition, "Let not the enemies rejoice over my misfortune" he is referring by implication to his brother's wish to maintain unity among the peopic. Here the unity is the chief point to emphasise: we are dealing with the Samiri as mischief-monger, and he could best be dealt with by Moses, who proceeds to do so.#
95>(Moses) said: "What then is thy case O Samiri?"
#2620 Moses now turns to the Samiri, and the Samiri's reply in the next verse sums up his character in a few wonderful strokes of character-painting. The lesson of the whole of this episode is the fall of a human soul that nominally comes to Allah's Truth in a humble position but makes mischief when and as it finds occasion. It is no less dangerous and culpable than the arrogant soul, typified by Pharaoh, which gets into high places and makes its leadership the cause of ruin of a whole nation.#
20:96 He replied: "I saw what they saw not: so I took a handful (of dust) from the footprint of the Apostle and threw it (into the calf): thus did my soul suggest to me."
#2621 This answer of the Samiri is a fine example of unblushing effrontery, careful evasion of issues, and invented falsehoods. He takes upon himself to pretend that he had far more insight than anybody else: he saw what the crowd did not see. He saw something supernatural. "The Messenger" is construed by many Commentators to mean the angel Gabriel. Rasul (plural, rusul) is used in several places for "angels" e.g., in xi. 69, 77; xix. 19; and xxxv. 1. But if we take it to mean the Messenger Moses, it means that the Samiri saw something sacred or supernatural in his footprints: perhaps he thinks a little flattery would make Moses forgive him. The dust became sacred, and his throwing it into the calf made the calf utter a lowing sound! As if that was the point at issue! He does not answer the charge of making an image for worship. But finally, with arrogant effrontery, he says, "Well, that is what my soul suggested to me, and that should be enough!"#
*** Verses 94-97 do not represent the Biblical version but are those of the Quran only.
I would like to quote from the interpreter's remarks above, what should rightly be his own epitaph
'This answer of the Samiri is a fine example of unblushing effrontery, careful evasion of issues, and invented falsehoods' ***
97>(Moses) said: "Get thee gone! but thy (punishment) in this life will be that thou wilt say `Touch me not'; and moreover (for a future penalty) thou hast a promise that will not fail: now look at thy god of whom thou hast become a devoted worshipper: we will certainly (melt) it in a blazing fire and scatter it broadcast in the sea!"
#2622 He and his kind were to become social lepers, untouchables; perhaps also sufficiently arrogant to hold others at arm's length, and say "Noli me tangere" (touch me not) . 2624 The cast effigy was destroyed. Thus ends the Samiri's story, of which the lessons are indicated in n. 2620 above. It may be interesting to pursue the transformations of the word Samiri in later times. For its origin see notes 2605 and 2608 above. Whether the root of Samiri was originally Egyptian or Hebrew does not affect the later history. Four facts may be noted. (1) There was a man bearing a name of that kind at the time of Moses, and he led a revolt against Moses and was cursed by Moses. (2) In the time of King Omri (903-896 B.C.) of the northern kingdom of Israel, there was a man called Shemer, from whom, according to the Bible, was bought a hill on which was built the new capital of the kingdom, the town of Samaria. (3) The name of the hill was Shomer (= watchman, vigilant guardian), and that form of the name also appears as the name of a man (see II Kings xii. 21); some authorities think the town was called after the hill and not after the man (Hastings's Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics), but this is for our present purposes immaterial. (4) There was and is a dissenting community of Israelites called Samaritans, who have their own separate Pentateuch and Targum, who claim to be the true Children of Israel, and who hold the Orthodox Jews in contempt as the latter hold them in contempt; they claim to be the true guardians (Shomerim) of the Law, and that is probably the true origin of the name Samaritan, which may go further back in time than the foundation of the town of Samaria. I think it probable that the schism originated from the time of Moses, and that the curse of Moses on the Samiri explains the position.#
*** All the well thought out but totally untrue explanations, cannot change the fact, that they do not represent the original story in the Bible.
All the verses concerning the Moses & Exodus stories are FIGMENTS of Muhammad's imagination ***
98>But the god of you all is the One Allah: there is no god but He: all things He comprehends in His knowledge.
99>Thus do We relate to thee some stories of what happened before: for We have sent thee a Message from Our own Presence.
#2625 Thus superseding previous revelations; for this (the Qur-an) is direct from Allah, and is not a second-hand exposition on other men's authority.#
100>If any do turn away there from verily they will bear a burden on the Day of Judgement;
101>They will abide in this (state): and grievous will the burden be to them on that Day
102>The Day when the Trumpet will be sounded: that Day We shall gather the sinful blear-eyed (with terror)
103>In whispers will they consult each other: "Ye tarried not longer than ten (Days)";
104>We know best what they will say when their leader most eminent in Conduct will say: "Ye tarried not longer than a day!"
105>They ask thee concerning the mountains: say "My Lord will uproot them and scatter them as dust;"
106>"He will leave them as plains smooth and level;"
107>Nothing crooked or curved wilt thou see in their place."
108>On that Day will they follow the Caller (straight): no crookedness (can they show) him: all sounds shall humble themselves in the presence of (Allah) Most Gracious: nothing shalt thou hear but the tramp of their feet (as they march).
109>On that Day shall no intercession avail except for those for whom permission has been granted by (Allah) Most Gracious and whose word is acceptable to Him
110>He knows what (appears to His creatures as) before or after or behind them: but they shall not compass it with their knowledge.
111>(All) faces shall be humbled before (Him) the Living the Self-Subsisting Eternal: hopeless indeed will be the man that carries iniquity (on his back).
112>But he who works deeds of righteousness and has faith will have no fear of harm nor of any curtailment (of what is his due).
113>Thus have we sent this down an Arabic Qur'an and explained therein in detail some of the warnings in order that they may fear Allah or that it may cause their remembrance (of Him).
114>High above all is Allah the King the Truth! Be not in haste with the Qur'an before its revelation to thee is completed but say "O my Lord! advance me in knowledge."
115>We had already beforehand taken the covenant of Adam but he forgot: and We found on his part no firm resolve.
116>When We said to the angels "Prostrate yourselves to Adam" they prostrated themselves but not Iblis: he refused.
*** All of a sudden, the Quran jumps from one narrative in one millennium to another completely unrelated in another millennium.
It jumps back from the Exodus to the story of Creation. Here too, the stories are spins on the Biblical originals***
20:117>Then We said: "O Adam! verily this is an enemy to thee and thy wife: so let him not get you both out of the Garden so that thou art landed in misery.
#2641 See last note. The story is referred to in order to draw attention to man's folly in rushing into the arms of satan though he had been clearly forewarned.#
*** The Torah had no concept of an EVIL entity called SATAN. This came hundreds of years later, in Jewish traditions. In the Biblical story of the Creation (Genesis), there is no mention of Iblis nor any of Satan, but of the serpent only.
Since the Quranic'revelations' occurred much later in time, it used both the Midrash and the New Testament versions of the Satanic concept; this is why the interpreter could not produce any cross references to the Genesis stories.
Moreover, God did not warn either Adam or Eve of the serpent, of Iblis or of Satan. The Quranic version is totally at variance with the Biblical record***
118"There is therein (enough provision) for thee not to go hungry nor to go naked"
#2642 Not only had the warning been given that satan is an enemy to man and will effect his destruction, but it was clearly pointed out that all his needs were being met in the Garden of Happiness. Food and clothing, drink and shelter, were amply provided for.#
*** As usual, the interpreter - who knows the Biblical narrative extremely well - is put in the unenviable position of deceiving the reader with his explanations.
The Quranic verse is wrong - as usual - since in the Garden, neither Adam nor Eve were aware of their nakedness until they broke God's instruction, and ate of the fruit of
119"Nor to suffer from thirst nor from the sun's heat."
20:120>But Satan whispered evil to him: he said "O Adam! shall I lead thee to Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that never decays?"
#2643 The suggestion of satan is clever, as it always is: it is false, and at the same time plausible. It is false, because (1) that felicity was not temporary, like the life of this world, and (2) they were supreme in the Garden, and a "kingdom" such as was dangled before them would only add to their sorrows. It was plausible, because (1) nothing had been said to them about Eternity, as the opposite of Eternity was not yet known, and (2) the sweets of Power arise from the savour of Self, and Self is an alluring (if false) attraction that misleads the Will.#
*** Once more, the interpreter has to cover up the blatantly erroneous Quranic version of the Adam and Eve story.
In the Bible Genesis 3:1" Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman, Has God said, you shall not eat of every tree of the garden?2. And the woman said to the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden;3. But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God has said, you shall not eat of it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die"
The serpent (Satan, if you will), did not tempt Adam but Eve. A second error in the Quranic verse, is that it was only the Tree of Knowledge that the serpent was tempting Eve to eat from and not the Tree of Life.
The most important omission in the Quranic version of these events is, that Eve is not ever referred to, in spite of her centrality and enormous importance to this particular
121>In the result they both ate of the tree and so their nakedness appeared to them: they began to sew together for their covering leaves from the Garden: thus did Adam disobey His Lord and allow himself to be seduced.
#2644 Hitherto they knew no evil. Now, when disobedience to Allah had sullied their soul and torn off the garment, their sullied Self appeared to themselves in all its nakedness and ugliness, and they had to resort to external things (leaves of the Garden) to cover the shame. 2645 Adam had been given the will to choose, and he chose wrong, and was about to be lost when Allah's Grace came to his aid. His repentance was accepted, and Allah chose him for His Mercy, as stated in the next verse.#
122>But his Lord chose him (for His Grace): He turned to him and gave him guidance.
123>He said: "Get ye down [ihbita] both of you all together from the Garden with enmity one to another; but if as is sure there comes to you guidance from Me whosoever follows My guidance will not lose his way nor fall into misery.
#2646 The little variations between this passage and ii. 38 are instructive, as showing how clearly the particular argument is followed in each case. Here ihbita ('get ye down') is in the dual number, and refers to the two individual souls, our common ancestors. 2647 For the same reason as in the last note, we have here the consequences of Guidance to the individual, viz.: being saved from going astray or from falling into misery and despair. In ii. 38, the consequences expressed, though they apply to the individual, are also appropriate taken collectively: "on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve."#
*** In the Bible Genesis 3: 14" And the Lord God said to the serpent, Because you have done this, you are cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon your belly shall you go, and dust shall you eat all the days of your life;15. And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; it shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel"
The enmity mentioned in the verse above was to be eternal between Eve and the serpent - and their progeny - and NOT between Eve and Adam as the above verse conveys and as the interpreter erroneously and falsely agrees upon.
Moreover, Adam and Eve were NOT THROWN DOWNfrom the Garden, but were THROWN OUT.
Muhammad, his Quran and Ahadith have completely misunderstood the concept of "The Fall of Adam" believing it to be a PHYSICAL fall from a Heavenly Garden to Earth and NOT a SPIRITUAL one from a Garden on Earth
Genesis 3: 22 Then the LORD God said: "See! The man has become like one of us, knowing what is good and what is bad! Therefore, he must not be allowed to put out his hand to take fruit from the tree of life also, and thus eat of it and live forever."
23 The LORD God therefore banished him from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he had been taken.
24When he expelled the man, he settled him east of the garden of Eden; and he stationed the cherubim and the fiery revolving sword, to guard the way to the tree of life.
Yet once again, we find another set of Quranic verses that are totally flawed and are not representative either in letter or in spirit, of the original Bilical ones ***
124"But whosoever turns away from My Message verily for him is a life narrowed down and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Judgment."
125He will say: "O my Lord! why hast thou raised me up blind while I had sight (before)?"
126(Allah) will say: "Thus didst thou when Our Signs came unto thee disregard them: so wilt thou this day be disregarded."
127And thus do We recompense him who transgresses beyond bounds and believes not in the Signs of his Lord: and the Penalty of the Hereafter is far more grievous and more enduring.
128It is not a warning to such men (to call to mind) how many generations before them We destroyed in whose haunts they (now) move? Verily in this are Signs for men endued with understanding.
129Had it not been for a Word that went forth before from thy Lord (their punishment) must necessarily have come; but there is a term appointed (for respite).
130Therefore be patient with what they say and celebrate (constantly) the praises of thy Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting; yea celebrate them for part of the hours of the night and at the sides of the day: that thou mayest have (spiritual) joy.
131Nor strain thine eyes in longing for the things We have given for enjoyment to parties of them the splendor of the life of this world through which We test them: but the provision of thy Lord is better and more enduring.
132Enjoin prayer on thy people and be constant therein. We ask thee not to provide sustenance: We provide it for thee. But the (fruit of) the Hereafter is for Righteousness.
133They say: "Why does he not bring us a Sign from His Lord?" Has not a clear Sign come to them of all that was in the former Books of revelation?
134And if We had inflicted on them a Penalty before this they would have said: "Our Lord! if only Thou hadst sent us an apostle we should certainly have followed Thy Signs before we were humbled and put to shame."
135Say: "Each one (of us) is waiting: wait ye therefore and soon shall ye know who it is that is on the straight and even way and who it is that has received guidance."
*** It is very important that the reader should reflect upon the first twenty Surahs (1-20) of the Quran that contain about 2283 verses of which 1566 are are based upon the Bible and Hebrew writings. That is, 69%.
To explain all the enormous CONTRADICTIONS,ANOMALIES, TIME DISPLACEMENTS, MENDACITIES and utter contempt for Historical and Religious FACTS in these Surahs so far, vis a vis their ORIGINALS in the BIBLE, one must come to the ONLY LOGICAL conclusion that unravels these issues:
No OMNISCIENT Compassionate and Merciful Divinity could have possibly 'revealed' such illogical, unhistorical, lies and stupidities because in reality, all the letters, words, verses and chapters of the Quran are the product of Muhammad's personal thoughts, garbled understanding, his lust, his anger, his hatred, his needs, his
but ingeniously projected into the unsuspecting mouth of Allah, the supreme rock god of Mecca, embedded into the corner wall of the Ka'ba, called the BLACK STONE ***